Rare Book & Manuscript Library

Hubert H. Harrison papers, 1893-1927

Summary Information


The papers of Hubert Harrison, the brilliant and influential writer, orator, educator, critic, and political activist in Harlem during the early decades of the 20th century.

At a Glance

Call No.: MS#1411
Bib ID 6134799 View CLIO record
Creator(s) Harrison, Hubert H.
Title Hubert H. Harrison papers, 1893-1927
Physical Description 23 linear feet (19 document boxes; 7 record storage cartons; 1 flat box)
Language(s) English , Latin , French .

This collection is located on-site.

The scrapbooks are fragile. Please use the photocopied surrogates in the boxes instead.

The majority of the collection has been digitized, and is available here: https://dlc.library.columbia.edu/sites/hubert_h_harrison



The papers of Hubert H. Harrison are organized in nine series.



The collection is composed of the personal papers--correspondence, manuscripts, documents, newspaper clippings, diaries, scrapbooks, memorabilia, photographs and books--of Hubert H. Harrison, an early 20th century African American activist, orator, writer, intellectual, and editor. The papers range from his early years in the United States to his death in 1927.

The bulk of the collection is printed material, mostly clippings and books. There is a substantial correspondence series which includes letters by many prominent writers and individuals such as John E. Bruce, Clarence Darrow, W.E.B. DuBois, Claude Mc Kay, H. L. Mencken, Eugene O'Neill, William Pickens, Adam Clayton Powell, Sr., A. Philip Randolph, Andy Razafkeriefo (Razaf), Joel A. Rogers, T. Lothrop Stoddard, William Monroe Trotter, Walter White, Carter G. Woodson, and Monroe N. Work.

Of particular note is the extensive collection of writings, both original manuscripts as well as clippings from newspapers and magazines by Hubert H. Harrison. In addition, there are numerous scrapbooks compiled by Harrison on a wealth of topics, as well as his diaries.

Many unique and important photographs of Harrison and his family, friends, and associates are contained in the collection along with a notable collection of books, evincing the breath and depth of Harrison's reading, as well as his interest in book collecting.

Harrison's active career as a lecturer and speaker is demonstrated by the numerous broadsides and pamphlets.

Using the Collection

Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Restrictions on Access

This collection is located on-site.

The scrapbooks are fragile. Please use the photocopied surrogates in the boxes instead.

The majority of the collection has been digitized, and is available here: https://dlc.library.columbia.edu/sites/hubert_h_harrison

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish material from the collection must be requested from the Curator of Manuscripts, Rare Book and Manuscript Library (RBML). The RBML approves permission to publish that which it physically owns; the responsibility to secure copyright permission rests with the patron.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Hubert H. Harrison Papers; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

Related Materials

See also the following publications: "A Hubert H. Harrison Reader". Edited by Jeffrey B. Perry. CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001. "Hubert Harrison: The father of Harlem Radicalism, 1883-1918". forthcoming, Columbia University Press, 2008


No accruals are expected

Ownership and Custodial History

Purchase, 2005.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Source of acquisition--Jeff Perry. Method of acquisition--Purchase; Date of acquisition--2005.

About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries, Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Processing Information

Papers processed by April Holm and Ben Heller 2006.

Revision Description

2009-07-07 File created.

2019-05-20 EAD was imported spring 2019 as part of the ArchivesSpace Phase II migration.

Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.


Heading "CUL Archives:"
"CUL Collections:"
"Nat'l / Int'l Archives:"
Book reviews Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID


Heading "CUL Archives:"
"CUL Collections:"
"Nat'l / Int'l Archives:"
African American leadership -- Archives Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African American leadership -- History -- 20th century Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African American newspapers Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African American orators Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African American political activists Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African American theater Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African Americans Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African Americans -- Biography Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African Americans -- Cultural assimilation -- History -- 20th century Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African Americans -- Intellectual life -- 20th century Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African Americans -- New York (State) -- New York Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African Americans -- Politics and government Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
African Americans -- Social conditions Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Agnosticism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
American literature -- African American authors Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Anti-imperialist movements Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Atheism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Black nationalism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Black nationalism -- American history -- 20th century Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Bruce, John Edward Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Censorship Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Civil rights Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Civil rights workers Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Communism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Criticism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Darrow, Clarence, 1857-1938 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Democracy Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Du Bois, W. E. B (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Education Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Free thought Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Freedom of speech Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Harlem (New York, N.Y.) Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Harlem Renaissance Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Harlem Renaissance -- Drama Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Harrison, Hubert H. Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Intellectuals Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Journalism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Labor Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
McKay, Claude, 1890-1948 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
New York (N.Y.). Department of Education Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
O'Neill, Eugene, 1888-1953 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Occupation Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Orators Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Pickens, William, 1881-1954 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Powell, A. Clayton (Adam Clayton), 1865-1953 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Public speaking Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Race relations Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Racism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Radicalism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip), 1889-1979 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Razaf, Andy, 1895-1973 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Rogers, J. A (Joel Augustus), 1880-1966 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Socialism Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Stoddard, Theodore L (Theodore Lothrop), 1926- Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Theater -- Reviews Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Trotter, William Monroe, 1872-1934 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
United States -- Social conditions -- 20th century Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
White, Walter Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Woodson, Carter Godwin, 1875-1950 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Work, Monroe Nathan Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
World War, 1914-1918 -- African Americans Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID

History / Biographical Note

Biographical / Historical

Born April 27, 1883, in Concordia, St. Croix, Danish West Indies, Hubert H. Harrison was a brilliant and influential writer, orator, educator, critic, and political activist in Harlem during the early decades of the 20th century. He played unique, signal roles, in what were the largest class radical movement (socialism) and the largest race radical movement (the New Negro/Garvey movement) of his era. Labor and civil rights activist A. Philip Randolph described him as "the father of Harlem radicalism" and historian Joel A. Rogers considered him "the foremost Afro-American intellect of his time" and "one of America's greatest minds." Following his December 17, 1927, death due to complications of an appendectomy, Harrison's important contributions to intellectual and radical thought were much neglected.

In 1900 Harrison moved to New York City where he worked low-paying jobs, attended high school, and became interested in freethought and socialism. His first of many published letters to the editor appeared in the "New York Times" in 1903. During his first decade in New York the autodidactic Harrison read and wrote constantly and was active in Black intellectual circles at St. Benedict's and St. Mark's Lyceums, the White Rose Home, and the Young Men's Christian Association. He also attended functions of the interracial Sunrise Club as well as Single Tax, Socialist, and Freethought-influenced activities. Beginning in 1907, he made his living as a postal clerk. In 1909 Harrison married Irene Louise ("Lin") Horton, and the following year their first of five children was born. Their relationship went through difficulties and they periodically lived in separate residences. In 1910 Harrison wrote two letters critical of Booker T. Washington that were published in the "New York Sun". Subsequent retaliatory efforts by Washington's "Tuskegee Machine" cost Harrison his postal employment and for the rest of his life he and his family were burdened with financial problems.

Between 1911 and 1914 Harrison was the leading Black activist, orator, and theoretician in the Socialist Party of New York and a prominent supporter of the Industrial Workers of the World. He made important theoretical contributions by emphasizing that true democracy and equality for African Americans implied a revolution startling to even think of and by advocating that socialists champion the cause of African Americans, that they develop a special appeal to and for African Americans, and that they affirm the duty of all socialists to oppose race prejudice. Socialist Party theory and practice led Harrison to conclude that Party leaders, like organized labor leaders, put the white "Race first and class after.".

During his socialist years and after Harrison pioneered the tradition of Harlem soap-box oratory, which was subsequently carried on by Randolph, Marcus Garvey, Malcolm X, and others. In 1914-15, after leaving the Socialist Party he was active with freethought and other radical secular movements, with free speech and birth control struggles, and with his own "Radical Forum." In 1915-1916, after writing probing theater reviews and delivering talks on the racial significance of World War I, Harrison concentrated work in Harlem's African American community and led in the development of the New Negro Movement.

In 1917 Harrison founded the first organization (The Liberty League) and the first newspaper ("The Voice") of the New Negro Movement--the race conscious, internationalist, mass based movement for "political equality, social justice, civic opportunity, and economic power" that laid the basis for the Garvey movement and contributed significantly to the social and literary climate leading to Alain Locke's well known publication "The New Negro". The Liberty League's "race first" program called for enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, federal anti-lynching legislation, militant resistance to racist attacks, and a political voice. In 1917, Harrison's first book"The Negro and the Nation" was published.

Harrison became a nationally recognized Black protest leader in 1918 when he co-chaired (with William Monroe Trotter) the Liberty Congress, the major Black protest effort of WWI. The Congress put forth demands for democracy at home, an end to segregation and disfranchisement, and federal anti-lynching legislation. His wartime protest efforts not only challenged the position taken by W.E.B. DuBois, Joel E. Spingarn, and the NAACP, they also served as precursors to the March on Washington Movement during World War II, which was led by Randolph, and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom during the Vietnam War, which was led by Randolph and Martin Luther King, Jr.

In 1919 Harrison served as editor of the New Negro magazine and then, in 1920, he became the principal editor of Marcus Garvey's "Negro World", which he re-shaped into the major radical race-conscious, political and literary, publication of the era. While writing for the Negro World Harrison discussed history, politics, literature, theater, poetry, international affairs, religion, and science. He also initiated and developed a "Poetry for the People" section and what he described as the first regular book review section by a Black author in history. In 1920 Harrison's second book"When Africa Awakes", was published. By August of 1920 Harrison was highly critical of Garvey's methods, claims, and actions and he ceased serving as managing editor of the "Negro World", though he continued to write articles and editorials for the paper into 1922.

From 1922 until his sudden death in 1927, Harrison, despite periods of ill health, continued to write and lecture prolifically. He published in the "Amsterdam News"; "Interstate Tattler"; "Modern Quarterly"; "New Republic"; "Nation"; "New York Times"; "New York Tribune"; "New York World"; and "Pittsburgh Courier". He lectured for the New York City Board of Education as staff lecturer from 1922-1926. He also spoke at universities, libraries, before community groups, and on street corners. In 1924, he founded the International Colored Unity League and in 1927 he edited "The Voice of the Negro".

Harrison's unexpected death following an appendectomy on December 17, 1927, left behind his widow, four daughters, and a young son. After a massive Harlem funeral he was honored through the creation of the Hubert H. Harrison Memorial Church, which no longer exists. His radicalism on so many issues -- race, class, religion, war, democracy, sexuality, literature and the arts -- and the fact that he was a forthright critic of individuals, organizations, and ideas of influence, were major reasons for his subsequent neglect.