Rare Book & Manuscript Library
 

Lionel Trilling papers, 1899-1987

Summary Information

Abstract

The Lionel Trilling Papers document the life of author, professor, and literary critic, Lionel Trilling. This collection contains his writings, extensive correspondence with other New York intellectuals, personal documents, and other records concerning his professional activities.

At a Glance

Call No.: MS#1256
Bib ID 4079615 View CLIO record
Creator(s) Trilling, Lionel, 1905-1975
Title Lionel Trilling papers, 1899-1987
Physical Description 27 linear feet (27 linear feet 51 document boxes 3 index card boxes)
Language(s) Material is in English.
Access

This collection is located on-site.

There are two folders in Series IV: Professional Work that contain student grades and reference letters. These items are restricted until 2036 and 2040.

Arrangement

Arrangement

This collection is arranged in six series and seven subseries: Series I: Personal, 1899-1975; Subseries I.1: Documents, 1899-1975; Subseries I.2: Journals, 1926-1975; Series II: Correspondence, 1900-1983; Subseries II.1: Alphabetical, 1900-1983; Subseries II.2: Chronological, 1925-1976; Series III: Writings, 1925-1974; Subseries III.1: Manuscripts and Papers, 1931-1975; Subseries III.2: Articles and Essays, 1925-1974; Subseries III.3: 1952-1974; Series IV: Professional Work, 1926-1987; Series V: Photographs, 1905-1963; Series VI: Realia, 1905-1971.

Description

Summary

The Lionel Trilling Papers document the professional work and personal life of Lionel Trilling (1905-1975), the prolific literary critic and Columbia University Professor of English Literature. This collection was acquired upon his death in 1975.

The bulk of the records consist of his many writings in the form of articles, essays, lectures, short stories, and book reviews. Correspondence with other prominent writers and intellectuals of the 20th century, family members, editors and publishers comprises the second largest series in the collection. Also contained are records concerning Trilling's work as a professor at Columbia University, as well as his involvement in various outside professional organizations. There is a small amount of personal documents and articles about Trilling's life and writings, including his detailed journals, comprised of his personal thoughts and intellectual queries.

Some of the items in this collection were originally located in the archives of his wife, Diana Trilling. Since their personal and professional lives intersected constantly, records concerning him, such as photographs and correspondence with his publishers, may be found in her collection as well.

  • Series I: Personal Papers

    Series I holds some of Lionel Trilling's personal items. This small series has been arranged into two subseries: Documents and Journals. Academic records, biographical information, certificates, and other general personal documents are found in Subseries 1. Subseries 2 contains extensive personal writings, ranging from the mid-1920s to the end of Trilling's life. Subseries 1 is arranged by topic, while Subseries 2 is arranged chronologically. Family and personal photographs are located in Series V.

  • Series II: Correspondence

    Series II holds Lionel Trilling's personal and professional correspondence. These letters were sent between Trilling and family members, colleagues at Columbia University and outside of the institution, contacts at publishing houses, and friends. This series is the largest in the collection and along with the writings, illuminates some of Trilling's opinions of other writers, developing literary trends, and the changing political situation, in particular World War II and the rise of social justice organizations in the 1960s. However, much of the correspondence consists of requests for Trilling to lecture, review new literary texts and give recommendations to former students and colleagues.

    The series has been arranged into two subseries: Alphabetical, by name or by topic, and Chronological. This collection was processed according to earlier manuscript processing standards followed; therefore letters of "significant" individuals were removed from their place within a loose chronological order and arranged alphabetically. Although this collection has been reprocessed and newly donated material has been integrated, the two systems of arrangement have been maintained since the original order is not clear.

  • Series III: Writings

    This series is the second largest in the collection and contains Lionel Trilling's extensive writings. The texts span his entire career and cover a variety of intellectual, cultural, and personal subjects. Many of the texts have accompanying annotations written by Trilling. These notations illustrate his creative process and provide insight in the way he crafted his writing. The series has been arranged into three subseries based upon the original order of the papers. The subseries are: Manuscripts and Papers, Articles, and Reviews.

  • Series IV: Professional Work

    The records in Series IV document Trilling's professional career as a professor of Literature, a literary critic, and a commentator on the changing political and cultural landscape of the United States. Included in this series are accolades, such as honorary degrees, awards, and grants received as well as meeting minutes and notices from professional organizations that Trilling was a member of. Columbia University records, such as committee correspondence and reports, course syllabi and attendance lists. This series is arranged by topic.

  • Series V: Photographs

    This small series holds photographs of Lionel Trilling, select friends, and several family members. Identified individuals include Lionel Trilling as both a youth and adult, his Uncle Hyman, his mother, Fannie Trilling, and Jacques Barzun. The majority of the family photographs were bequeathed to James Trilling and not included in the donation of this archive. For more photographs, please see the Diana Trilling Papers housed at the RBML at Columbia University.

  • Series VI: Realia

    Series VI contains personal memorabilia such as the baby shoes of Lionel Trilling and his sister, Harriet Schwartz, as well as some academic medals that he won while at High School and The Alexander Hamilton Award that he was given from Columbia University

General Note

See also the Diana Trilling Papers, MS#1421

Using the Collection

Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Restrictions on Access

This collection is located on-site.

There are two folders in Series IV: Professional Work that contain student grades and reference letters. These items are restricted until 2036 and 2040.

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. The RBML maintains ownership of the physical material only. Copyright remains with the creator and his/her heirs. The responsibility to secure copyright permission rests with the patron.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Lionel Trilling papers, Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

Related Material

Diana Trilling Papers, 1921-1996 Columbia University.Rare Book and Manuscript Library MS#1421 http:www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/archival/collections/ldpd_6259383/index.html

About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries, Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Processing Information

Papers Entered in AMC 12/04/1990.

Offprints & clippings Processed HR 07/01/1992.

7 photographs Cataloged HR 07/01/1992.

Collection Lea Osborne 2007.

99 letters (with publisher) Cataloged & processed HR 06/26/1997.

Revision Description

2008-12-02 File created.

2008-12-31 xml document instance created by Patrick Lawlor

2009-04-27 Revised by Lea Osborne

2019-05-20 EAD was imported spring 2019 as part of the ArchivesSpace Phase II migration.

Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.

Genre/Form

Heading "CUL Archives:"
"Portal"
"CUL Collections:"
"CLIO"
"Nat'l / Int'l Archives:"
"ArchivedGRID"
Articles Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Audio tapes Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Card files Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Journals Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Manuscripts (literary) Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Photographs Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID

Subject

Heading "CUL Archives:"
"Portal"
"CUL Collections:"
"CLIO"
"Nat'l / Int'l Archives:"
"ArchivedGRID"
American literature -- 20th century Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Authors, American -- 20th century Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Barzun, Jacques, 1907-2012 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
College teachers Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
College teachers as authors -- New York (State) -- New York Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Columbia University Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Criticism -- United States Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Critics Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Ginsberg, Allen, 1926-1997 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Literary quarrels Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Ransom, John Crowe, 1888-1974 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Trilling, Diana Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Van Doren, Mark, 1894-1972 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID

History / Biographical Note

Biographical / Historical

Lionel Trilling was an intellectual force in the New York literary and political scene throughout much of the 20th Century. A prolific writer, Trilling published literary criticism and cultural commentaries in journals such as The Nation, Commentary, The New York Times, The New York Times Book Review, and The Menorah Journal. Some of these publications were created by Trilling's colleagues, a group of left-leaning, Anti-Stalinist critics and theorists the New York Intellectuals like Daniel Bell, Irving Howe, Alfred Kazin, and Sidney Hook. These individuals were predominantly Jewish men who established themselves as a kind of "American Bloomsbury" to quote Columbia University professor of journalism Nicholas Lemann. Outside of his writing, Trilling was a popular and respected professor of English Literature at Columbia University. Together, with historian Jacques Barzun, Trilling helped to establish some of the core interdisciplinary classes that were vital to the growth and development of Columbia as a competitive academic environment.

Lionel M. Trilling was born on July 4, 1905 in New York City to businessman David W. Trilling and his wife Fannie (neé Cohen). As a child, Trilling attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx where he was a colleague of Countee Cullen. At school Trilling participated as a member of the Book Review Squad, the Reporters Squad, and president of Papyrus. He also wrote for the school publication, Magpie as well as co-authored a class play. In 1921 Lionel Trilling entered Columbia University, an institution that was to be his intellectual home for the rest of his life. Trilling graduated from Columbia with his A.B. in 1925 and his M.A. in 1926. For the next eleven years Trilling worked toward a doctorate in English Literature. However, this path was interrupted by work. He did not complete the Ph.D. until 1938.

Trilling left New York to be an Instructor of English at the University of Wisconsin from 1926 to 1927. Upon his return, Trilling began to date a recent Radcliffe graduate named Diana Rubin. Rubin was also a New Yorker, having been brought up in Manhattan. She briefly worked with her mother, Cecelia, as an interior designer while she pursued a career as a classical singer. Illness forced Rubin to abandon that goal. She and Lionel married on October 25, 1929.

A couple of years later, Trilling began teaching at Columbia University. His initial position was as an instructor and in 1939 he was made an assistant professor. From 1939 until 1944 he held this position and was promoted in 1944 to associate professor. Trilling was the first Jewish professor in the department to receive tenure. Throughout his career, Trilling was extremely involved with his undergraduate students. Along with his colleague and close friend, Jacques Barzun, Trilling reinstated a series of interdisciplinary or "general education" courses. With Barzun, Trilling taught a portion of the course entitled, Colloquium on Important Books, in which he covered cultural history and criticism of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1969, Trilling was given the title of University Professor, a post he held until his retirement from teaching in 1975.

Although he was an active faculty member, Trilling published quite regularly. His dissertation"Matthew Arnold", was published a year after he completed the degree. This was followed by another study"E.M. Forster" in 1943. Other publications include a novel"The Middle of the Journey" (1949), several volumes of short stories; the most well-known of these is "Of This Time, Of That Place" (1940). However, Trilling is best known for his collections of critical essays, in particular "The Liberal Imagination" (1950)"The Opposing Self" (1955), and "Beyond Culture" (1965). Trilling was interested in Sigmund Freud as a cultural icon as well as using Freudian psychology in the analysis of literature. Two books that focused on these themes were "Freud and the Crisis of Our Culture" (1955) and "The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud" (1962). Please note that Trilling's writings encompassed decades of work and that countless bibliographies have been attempted and often abandoned due to the sheer size of his oeuvre.

Trilling did not spend all of his time strictly at Columbia. He was a founder, with John Crowe Ransom and F.O. Matthiessen, of the Kenyon School of Letters, now referred to as The School of Letters, Indiana University. Beginning in 1951 as a summer program, the school expanded to a full-year program in 1961, with a focus on literary theory and criticism. Information concerning The School of Letters may be found in the Indiana University School of Letters Director's Records finding aid located in the Indiana University Archives.

Throughout his life, Lionel Trilling maintained a high level of professional achievement and this was reflected in the many academic accolades he received. He served as the George Eastman Visiting Professor at Oxford University from 1964-1965. There, Trilling lectured at the university and other academic and intellectual institutions as well as taught classes. He was accompanied by Diana Trilling who, by this time, had firmly established herself as a serious literary and cultural critic and penned for a variety of journals, including "Partisan Review""The New York Times Book Review""Redbook""The Nation""The New Leader", and "McCall's". She had also recently published a book entitled"Claremont Essays". They were joined by their son, James Lionel Trilling. He was born in 1949 and at that point was a student at Exeter.

Four years later, Trilling was the Charles Eliot Norton Visiting Professor at Harvard University. In addition to these two positions, he held honorary doctorates from Trinity College in Hartford Connecticut (1955), Harvard University (1962), Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland Ohio (1968), Northwestern University (1963), Leicester University (1973), Brandeis University (1974) and Yale University (1974). Trilling was awarded the Alexander Hamilton Medal from Brandeis University in 1968 and gave the first annual Jefferson Lecture for the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) in 1972. He was a Guggenheim Fellow from 1948 to 1949 and received a second grant that he was unable to use in 1975.

While he was active in his field, Trilling was a member of the Modern Language Association, the American Committee for Cultural Freedom of which both he and Diana Trilling resigned once the organization redirected its mission, The National Institute of Arts and Letters, and The American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

As the 1960s unfolded, student unrest grew on American campuses, in particular Kent State and Columbia University. Although Trilling was teaching at that time, he, like most members of the faculty, was unaware of the growing dissatisfaction among the students and the community of Harlem. Always considered a driving force behind New York intellectualism, he would later be criticized for never publicly recognizing the importance of the social movements that occurred during the decade as well as the racial components that were driving the majority of them.

Upon his retirement from Columbia, Trilling was awarded the title of Professor Emeritus. Shortly after, he was taken ill with a fast moving form of cancer that had progressed undetected for too long. By November of that year, he had died. Diana Trilling published a twelve-volume set of his writings from 1977 to 1979. She also wrote "The Beginning of the Journey: The Marriage of Diana and Lionel Trilling", a memoir of the first years of their life together. Diana Trilling died of cancer in October of 1996.