Columbia University Archives
 

Department of Anthropology Records, 1930-1985

Summary Information

Abstract

Documenting the operations of the Anthropology Department, these records reflect administrative and instructional or research functions of the department.

At a Glance

Call No.: UA#0018
Bib ID 5045485 View CLIO record
Creator(s) Columbia University. Department of Anthropology ; Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997 ; Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 ; Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948 ; Fried, Morton H. (Morton Herbert), 1923-1986 ; Greenberg, Joseph H. (Joseph Harold), 1915-2001 ; Holloway, Ralph L. ; Murphy, Robert F (Robert Francis), 1924-1990 ; Skinner, Elliott P (Elliott Percival), 1924-2007 ; Solecki, Ralph S ; Wagley, Charles, 1913-
Title Department of Anthropology Records, 1930-1985
Physical Description 3.42 linear feet (3 record cartons 1 document box)
Language(s) English .
Access

Personnel and student records are restricted for 75 years after the date of its creation.

This collection is located off-site. You will need to request this material at least three business days in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room.

Arrangement

Arrangement

Arranged in two series.

Description

Summary

Correspondence, financial reports, budgets, newspaper clippings, contracts, personnel records, flyers, supply orders and receipts, and other material document the operations of the Anthropology Department. Research projects conducted by graduate students and faculty and funded by the Columbia Council for Research in the Social Sciences (CRSS) contain research proposals and progress reports. Material includes routine correspondence regarding expenditures and dispersement of funds, salaries, appointments, fieldwork arrangments, progress reports, publications, and other research project issues. Prof. Benedict headed the project "Acculturation" and Prof. Franz Boas headed: "Race and Heredity." Correspondence for chairmen Charles Wagley, Joseph H. Greenberg, Conrad M. Arensberg, Morton H. Fried, Robert F. Murphy, Elliott P. Skinner, Ralph S. Solecki, and Ralph L. Holloway documents the Department during the 1960s-1980s, including the student strike in 1968 and the Department's participation in the subsequent restructuring of the University's governance.

  • Series I: Research, 1930-1979

    This series contains correspondence, reports and newspaper clippings relating to research projects conducted by graduate students and faculty of the Department of Anthropology.

  • Series II: Administration, 1931-1985

    This series contains budgets, correspondence, reports and appointment records relating to the administration of the Department of Anthropolgy.

Using the Collection

Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Restrictions on Access

Personnel and student records are restricted for 75 years after the date of its creation.

This collection is located off-site. You will need to request this material at least three business days in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room.

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. The RBML maintains ownership of the physical material only. Copyright remains with the creator and his/her heirs. The responsibility to secure copyright permission rests with the patron.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Department of Anthropology Records; Box and Folder; University Archives, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University in the City of New York.

Selected Related Material-- at Columbia

Central Files, 1890-1971

Within the Central Files, refer to files on Ruth Benedict and Franz Boas.

Council for Research in the Humanities Records, 1926-1968

Council for Research in the Humanities Records, 1926-1968

Columbia University Archives Historical Biographical Files (see the Ruth Benedict and Franz Boas files).

Franz Boas Papers, ca. 1858-1942, American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Margaret Mead papers and South Pacific, Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996 (bulk 1911-1978), Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.

Franz Boas Field notebooks and physical anthropological data, 1889-1897, undated, Northwestern University Library, Chicago, Illinois.

Accrual

No additions are expected

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Source of acquisition--Department of Anthropology. Method of acquisition--Gift; Date of acquisition--1996.

About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries, Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Processing Information

Records processed Jennifer Ulrich 12/--/2004.

Finding aid written Jennifer Ulrich 2004.

Finding aid reformatted Evan Roth (SEAS 2010) 09/--/2008.

Finding aid edited Jocelyn Wilk 07/--/2010.

Revision Description

2010-07-13 xml document instance created by Carrie Hintz

2019-05-20 EAD was imported spring 2019 as part of the ArchivesSpace Phase II migration.

Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.

Genre/Form

Heading "CUL Archives:"
"Portal"
"CUL Collections:"
"CLIO"
"Nat'l / Int'l Archives:"
"ArchivedGRID"
Budgets Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Reports Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID

Subject

Heading "CUL Archives:"
"Portal"
"CUL Collections:"
"CLIO"
"Nat'l / Int'l Archives:"
"ArchivedGRID"
Anthropology -- Study and teaching Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Columbia University -- Faculty Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Columbia University -- Student strike, 1968 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Columbia University -- Students Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Ethnology -- Study and teaching Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Human ecology -- Study and teaching Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID

History / Biographical Note

Biographical / Historical

The Department of Anthropology at Columbia University was established in 1902 as part of the Faculty of Philosophy, under the direction of Professor Franz Boas. At the time of its establishment, the department was also staffed by Livingston Farrand as Adjunct Professor and Joseph Hershey Bair as Assistant. Courses offered in 1902 included Anthropology, General Introductory Course, Ethnography of America, Ethnography of the Pacific Islands and of Africa, The Statistical Study of Variation, introductory and advanced course, Ethnology-Primitive Culture, Physical Anthropology, and American Languages and Research Work in Physical Anthropology, Ethnology, and North American Languages. Courses in anthropology were first offered in 1896 by the Department of Philosophy and Education, then called Philosophy, Psychology, and Education. Courses were consolidated under one department in 1897 in the Faculty of Philosophy with Livingston Farrand as Instructor and Franz Boas as Lecturer. The following year, the Department of Philosophy and Education was staffed by James Cattell and Boas, later changing its name to the Division of Philosophy, Psychology and Anthropology.

A renowned anthropology scholar and professor, Franz Boas was trained in Germany, immigrated to the United States in 1888, taught at Clark University, and was curator at the American Museum of Natural History. He was first appointed as lecturer in physical anthropology at Columbia in 1896. Boas attracted many students to the program during his tenure, advancing the department as a leader in the field. Students of Boas included Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead. Benedict, Associate Professor of Anthropology, eventually served as Executive Officer for the Department.

The Department conducted several projects funded by Columbia's Council for Research in the Social Sciences (CRSS), a multidisciplinary organization that promoted social science research at Columbia University. Professor Benedict headed Project no. 35: "Acculturation" Professor Franz Boas headed Project no. 19: "Race and Heredity" and Federico De Onis and Ruth Bunzel contributed to project no. 39. "Religion and Culture in Mexico." Established in 1925, Columbia's CRSS was modeled after the national council founded two years earlier, in 1923.

Although the field of archaeology is often found within departments of anthropology at other colleges and universities (and some archaeological expedition records are found in this collection), these courses are currently offered by the Department of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University. Relevant courses may be found in other departments as well, reflecting the field's multidisciplinary nature. Classical archaeology courses were first offered by the Department of Greek and Latin in 1890. Prior to the founding of the Department of Fine Arts and Archaeology in 1934, courses on ancient art and architecture were offered in the School of Architecture - a department established in 1881as part of School of Mines and housed in that school until 1902.

Due to COVID-19 restrictions, only Columbia affiliates may view materials on-site. After clicking 'Submit Request', affiliates will login with their UNI and password. Appointments are required and will be arranged according to each individual repository's policy.


Series I: Research, 1930-1979

This series contains correspondence, reports and newspaper clippings relating to research projects conducted by graduate students and faculty of the Department of Anthropology.


Subseries I.1: Council for Research in the Social Sciences, 1930-1962

This series contains records related to research projects conducted by graduate students and faculty that were funded by the Columbia Council for Research in the Social Sciences (CRSS). These files are arranged by project number and title for ease of access. Correspondence includes that between Ruth Benedict and CRSS administrator Thomas Hayden on the dispersal of funds, progress reports, publications, and other research project issues. The files contain research proposals and subsequent progress reports. Material includes routine correspondence regarding expenditures, salaries, appointments and fieldwork arrangements. Research data is not significant in these records.

Graduate research training in Ecological Anthropology, or "Human Ecology" was funded by the Research Training Grants branch of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). The principal investigator was Prof. Andrew P. Vayda. The bulk of these files contain appointments, grant proposals, and fund applications.



Box 1 Folder 1 Project 2: Heredity and Environment, 1936-1938


Box 1 Folder 2 Project 19: Research in Anthropology, ca., 1940


Box 1 Folder 3 Project 26: Racial and Social Differences in Mental Ability, 1936


Box 1 Folder 4 Project 35: Acculturation, 1930-1938


Box 1 Folder 5 Project 39: Religion and Culture in Mexico, 1930-1936, 1953, 1930-1936, 1953


Box 1 Folder 6 Project 46: Research in New Guinea, 1930-1937


Box 1 Folder 7 Project 47: Approaches to History, ca., 1930


Box 1 Folder 8 Project 86: Social Isolation, 26, March 1936


Box 1 Folder 9 Project 87: Negro Studies in Haiti, 12, October 1937


Box 1 Folder 10 Project 89: Research on Aging and Heredity of Life Span, 1938


Box 1 Folder 11 Project 103: Caribbean Negro Studies, 12, October 1937


Box 1 Folder 12 Project 126: South American Ethnology, 1939 undated, 1939, undated


Box 1 Folder 13 Project 140: Current Culture in the Grand Chaco, ca., 1940


Box 1 Folder 14 Project 143: Family life in Pueblo of Zuni, undated


Box 1 Folder 15 Project 218: Afro-Caribbean Pidgins, 1950-1952


Box 1 Folder 16 Project 228L Language Variance and Divergence, 1951-1952


Box 1 Folder 17 Project 256: American-Indian Ethnolinguistics, 1953


Box 1 Folder 18 Project 264: Archeological Excavation of Zuni Pueblo, 1953-1954


Box 1 Folder 19 Project 272: Linguistic Acculturation in Nigeria, 1952-1962


Box 1 Folder 20 Assorted Projects, 1936-1940


Box 1 Folder 21 Assorted Projects, 1947-1958 undated, 1947-1958, undated


Subseries I.2: Fieldwork and expeditions, 1931-1979

This series contains correspondence, reports and newspaper clippings documenting field schools and expeditions not funded by the CRSS. Material documenting a particular research project or expedition was removed from the general chronological "current expedition" file and labeled accordingly. The records document relations between the Anthropology Department and the Department of the Interior for both archeological and ethnographic field work.

Of note are newspaper clippings, telegrams, and letters documenting the death of student Henrietta Schmerler, murdered by 22 year-old Max Seymour, while conducting field research at an Apache reservation in Arizona. Correspondence includes telegrams, reports, and letters between Frank D. Fackenthal, Secretary of Columbia College, William Donner, Superintendent at the Whiteriver [Fort Apache] Indian Agency, U.S. Department of the Interior, and Professor Boas. Newspaper clippings and letters report the incident, along with editorials directed at the field of ethnography, the Anthropology Department, and Columbia University. Also included are letters authored by Henrietta Schmerler during her field work to both Franz Boas and others.

The archeological investigation of the Borough of Brooklyn was undertaken by the Department of Anthropology and funded by the National Parks Service. According to the contract, "funds were appropriated to the Service by Interior Department Appropriation Act of 1957 for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of Public Law 214, 84th Congress (69 Stat. 445) relative to the conduct of an historical and archeological investigation of the burial site of 256 Maryland soldiers who fell in combat during the Battle of Brooklyn on the 27th day of August, 1776…"

Expeditions and other projects not identified as CRSS-sponsored may still have some relation, such as the funding for Arabic language training for Kepler Lewis. He led an ethnological study group in Lebanon which was part of a larger "Middle East Research Project." Professor Joseph H. Greenberg was the faculty advisor to the project.

Photographs accompany field notes for the excavation of the MacHaffie site, Folsom culture.


Box 1 Folder 22 Schmerler (Henrietta) murder, correspondence, 4 July 1931-18, January 1932


Box 1 Folder 23 Schmerler (Henrietta) murder, clippings, 15 July-1, August 1931


Box 1 Folder 24 Archeology field school – Point of Pines, Arizona, 1947


Box 1 Folder 25 Bahia, Brazil Project, 1949-1953


Box 1 Folder 26 MacHaffie site, Montana (Folson culture), 1951


Box 1 Folder 27 Middle East Research Project, 1949-1953 undated, 1949-1953, undated


Box 1 Folder 28 National Park Service Battle of Brooklyn archeological investigation project, 1952, 1956-1957, 1952, 1956-1957


Box 1 Folder 29 Lipkind, William – Caraja field materials, 1979


Box 1 Folder 30 Assorted expeditions, 1937-1954


Subseries I.3: National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 1966-1973

Graduate research training in Ecological Anthropology, or "Human Ecology" was funded by the Research Training Grants branch of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). The principal investigator was Prof. Andrew P. Vayda. The bulk of these files contain appointments, grant proposals, and fund applications.


Box 1 Folder 31 Research Training grants, 1966-1973


Box 1 Folder 32 Trainee Appointments, 1968-1973


Box 1 Folder 33 Research Supplementary funds, 1968-1969


Box 1 Folder 34 Research supplementary proposal (Minda Brown),1968


Box 1 Folder 35 Research renewal application, 1970


Box 1 Folder 36 Research continuation proposal, three year, 1970


Box 1 Folder 37 Research continuation proposal, four year, 1970-1971


Subseries I.4: Publication, 1931-1972

contains articles and miscellaneous manuscripts relating to departmental contributions in Anthropological literature. An annotated manuscript, along with a carbon copy, titled "Notes on Child Development at San Ildefonso," by William and Marjorie W. Whitman is included and may be a draft of their work, The Pueblo Indians of San Ildefonso, a changing culture, New York, Columbia University Press, 1947.


Box 1 Folder 38 Columbia University Press: Archeological Studies in Peru (Strong, Willey, and Corbett), 1949, 1956-1957, 1949, 1956-1957


Box 1 Folder 39 Columbia University Press: Cultural Stratigraphy in the Viru Valley, Northern Peru, (Strong and Evans), 1949-1954 undated, 1949-1954, undated


Box 1 Folder 40 Columbia University Presss: Early Ancon and Early Supe Culture (Willey and Corbett), 1951, 1954-1955, 1951, 1954-1955


Box 1 Folder 41 Contributions to Anthropology, 1931-1939, 1972, 1931-1939, 1972


Box 1 Folder 42 Contributions to Anthropology, 1942-1947


Box 1 Folder 43 Contributions to Anthropology, 1948-1953 undated, 1948-1953, undated


Box 1 Folder 44 Krickberg, W., translation by Ruth Stout, 1935


Box 1 Folder 45 Publication Problems, 1951-1956 undated, 1951-1956, undated


Box 1 Folder 46 Program for the department of Anthropology, 1954


Box 1 Folder 47 Greenberg, Joseph H. – African Linguistics, 1950-51


Box 1 Folder 48 Spaulding, Albert manuscript – Arzberger Site, South Dakota, 1954-1955


Box 1 Folder 49 Steward, Julian H. manuscript, "Area Studies", undated


Box 1 Folder 50 Unidentified manuscript – American Indian cultures, undated


Box 1 Folder 51 Whitman, William and Marjorie manuscript, 1947 undated, 1947, undated


Subseries I.5: General A-Z, 1933-1976

This series contains correspondence and reports relating to research not described by the previous subseries.



Box 2 Folder 1 Benedict, Ruth – lecture notes, 1947-1948 undated, 1947-1948, undated


Box 2 Folder 2 Boas, Franz – Linguistic Society of America


Box 2 Folder 3 Council for Research in the Humanities, 1933-1936


Box 2 Folder 4 East Harlem Research Project (Foresight Family Health Study), 1955 undated, 1955, undated


Box 2 Folder 5 Harris, Marvin – Indo-American fellowship program, 1976


Box 2 Folder 6 Mead, Margaret – Russian, Soviet study, 1948-1950


Box 2 Folder 7 Rorshach tests, n.d


Box 2 Folder 8 Study of man in the tropics, 1957-1958

Series II: Administration, 1931-1985

This series contains budgets, correspondence, reports and appointment records relating to the administration of the Department of Anthropolgy.


Subseries II.1: Personnel, 1944-1985

The personnel subseries consists of appointment records and search files which are restricted 75 years after the date of creation. These records were rearranged alphabetically from chronological order for ease of access.


Box 2 Folder 9 Appointments A-B, 1956-1970


Box 2 Folder 10 Appointments C, 1954-1970


Box 2 Folder 11 Appointments D-E, 1950-1970


Box 2 Folder 12 Appointments F-G, 1949-1970


Box 2 Folder 13 Appointments H-I, 1952-1971


Box 2 Folder 14 Appointments J-K, 1955-1971


Box 2 Folder 15 Appointments L, 1950-1970


Box 2 Folder 16 Appointments M, 1944-1970


Box 2 Folder 17 Appointments N, 1962-1971


Box 2 Folder 18 Appointments O-P, 1952-1969


Box 2 Folder 19 Appointments R, 1955-1965


Box 2 Folder 20 Appointments S, 1949-1970


Box 2 Folder 21 Appointments T, 1958-1970


Box 2 Folder 22 Appointments V-Z, 1950-1967


Box 2 Folder 23 Appointments, General, 1950-1970


Box 2 Folder 24 Linguistics Professor Search, 1971 May-1972 February

[RESTRICTED UNTIL 2048]


Box 2 Folder 25 Middle East Anthropologist Professor search, 1972 November-1973 April

[RESTRICTED UNTIL 2049]


Box 2 Folder 26 Tinker (Edward Larocque) Visiting Professor, 1983-1985

[RESTRICTED until 2061]


Box 2 Folder 27 Urban Anthropologist Professor search, 1973 November -1974 July

[RESTRICTED UNTIL 2050]


Box 2 Folder 28 Faculty Positions, general, circa 1970-1980

[RESTRICTED UNTIL 2056]


Box 2 Folder 29 Faculty biographical information, 1979-1980


Subseries II.2: Budget, 1931-1976

are filed by the academic year. Information on faculty appointments, tenure, and salaries can be found in the Budget files. Departmental Chairman correspondence and information about research assistants and other staff related to the Council for Research in the Social Sciences projects are generally located in this subseries as well.


Box 2 Folder 30 1931-1954


Box 2 Folder 31 1957-1958


Box 2 Folder 32 1958-1959


Box 2 Folder 33 1960-1961


Box 2 Folder 34 1961-1962


Box 2 Folder 35 1962-1963


Box 2 Folder 36 1963-1964


Box 2 Folder 37 1964-1965


Box 2 Folder 38 1965-1966


Box 2 Folder 39 1966-1967


Box 2 Folder 40 1967-1968


Box 2 Folder 41 1968-1969


Box 2 Folder 42 1968-1969 research grant, 1968-1969


Box 2 Folder 43 1969-1970


Box 2 Folder 44 1970-1971


Box 2 Folder 45 1971-1972


Box 2 Folder 46 1972-1973


Box 2 Folder 47 1973-1974


Box 2 Folder 48 1974-1975


Box 2 Folder 49 1975-1976


Subseries II.3: Executive Officers & Chairmen, 1936-1974

consists of correspondence files for the departmental chairs and executive officers and are arranged chronologically by name. Ruth Benedict was "Executive Officer." Correspondence from "Departmental Representative" is included. Files labeled by subject or correspondent's office, were maintained and filed alphabetically. Correspondence between the department and the University President concerns alumni fundraising, the "capital campaign," endowed professorships, and general accounting procedures.

Files titled "Restructuring" relate to changes in the organization of the University as a result of the spring 1968 student riots. By October of that year, the University Student Council, Executive Committee of the Faculty, Office of the vice Provost for Academic Planning, Student for a Restructured University, and the Student Representatives to the Special Committee of the Trustees announced a joint sponsorship of public hearing on proposals for a University restructuring. The formation of the University Senate, composed of students, faculty, and administrators, resulted from these efforts.

Correspondence concerning time limits for registered graduate students to complete their Ph.D degrees, and the interruption of studies due to military service during the late 1960s, coincide with the Vietnam conflict.


Box 2 Folder 50 Benedict, Ruth – Re: Franz Boas Support Fund, 1936-1938, undated


Box 2 Folder 51 Greenberg, Joseph H., 1961-1962


Box 2 Folder 52 Arensberg, Conrad M., 1958-1963


Box 2 Folder 53 Wagley, Charles, 1960-1963



Box 3 Folder 1 Harris Marvin, 1963-1966


Box 3 Folder 2 Fried, Morton H., 1966-1969


Box 3 Folder 3 Murphy, Robert F., 1969-1971


Box 3 Folder 4 Skinner, Elliott P., 1972-1974


Box 3 Folder 5 Solecki, Ralph, 1977


Box 3 Folder 6 Halloway, Ralph L., 1979-1980


Box 3 Folder 7 Ad Hoc Committees, 1959-1969

[RESTRICTED UNTIL 2045]


Box 3 Folder 8 Faculty of Columbia College, 1967-1969


Box 3 Folder 9 Faculty of Columbia College, 1970-1972


Box 3 Folder 10 Provost, Office of, 1964-1968


Box 3 Folder 11 Restructuring, May-September 1968


Box 3 Folder 12 Restructuring, 4, June 1968


Box 3 Folder 13 Restructuring, 1968 October-1969 May


Box 3 Folder 14 Student Strike, 1968 February-1968 April


Box 3 Folder 15 Student Strike, 1968 May


Box 3 Folder 16 Student Strike, 1968 May


Box 3 Folder 17 Student Strike, 1968 June-December


Box 3 Folder 18 Student Strike, 1969-1970


Box 3 Folder 19 University Senate, 1969-1970


Subseries II.4: Students, 1947-1979

consists of reports, lists, correspondence and publications. Files in this subseries are also restricted for 75 years after the date of creation, except for those documenting student clubs.


Box 3 Folder 20 Anthropology Club/Society, 1958-1974


Box 3 Folder 21 Anthropology Now 1956, 1958, 1956, 1958


Box 3 Folder 22 C.U. Anthropologist, Oct-Dec, 1964


Box 3 Folder 23 Archeological field school, Arizona, 1947-1948

[RESTRICTED until 2024]

(Information about applicants and evaluation of participants for 1947-1948).


Box 3 Folder 24 Candidates awarded Master of Arts degree, 1949-1969 undated, 1949-1969, undated


Box 3 Folder 25 Candidates awarded Doctor of Philosophy degree, 1958-1968


Box 3 Folder 26 Candidates with "all but dissertation" Doctor of Philosophy degree, 1964-1967


Box 3 Folder 27 Fellowship and grant recipients, 1978-1979


Box 3 Folder 28 Language examination, 1960-1968

[RESTRICTED UNTIL 2044]


Box 3 Folder 29 Registered students, 1938-1968


Box 3 Folder 30 Ross, Jane, 1974


Box 3 Folder 31 Student council, 1964-1965


Subseries II.5: General A-Z, 1938-1980

contains administrative records not described by the previous subseries. Topics include curriculum, fees, and laboratory space. Oversized architectural plans were removed and filed with the University Archives Flat Files Collection.



Box 4 Folder 1 Curriculum, 1938, 1966-1978


Box 4 Folder 2 Curriculum, course changes, 1957-1975


Box 4 Folder 3 Degree requirements, 1956-1974


Box 4 Folder 4 Petersons Annual Guide to Graduate Study, 1968-1969


Box 4 Folder 5 Fees and Financial aid, 1968-1969, 1975, 1968-1969, 1975


Box 4 Folder 6 Registration extension and deferment, 1966-1969


Box 4 Folder 7 Schermerhorn extension, 1964-1968

See Flat Files


Box 4 Folder 8 Schermerhorn Extension, proposed lab, 1947, 1958-1965, 1947, 1958-1965

See Flat Files


Box 4 Folder 9 Photograph Collection, 1980