The Faculty of Political Science was established in 1880 by John W. Burgess. This was the first step in transforming Columbia College into Columbia University in the City of New York. The Faculty of Philosophy came into being in 1890, and the Faculty of Pure Science, in 1892. These faculties required students to have a bachelor's degree for admission; focused on research and the advancement of learning; and offered the highest degree, the Ph.D. Starting in 1909, these faculties shared a Dean. In 1979, the Faculties officially merged as the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.