Rare Book & Manuscript Library
 

Meyer Schapiro collection, 1919-2006

Summary Information

Abstract

This collection encompasses the professional, personal, and artistic life of art historian Meyer Schapiro.

At a Glance

Call No.: MS#1121
Bib ID 7467251 View CLIO record
Creator(s) Schapiro, Meyer, 1904-1996
Title Meyer Schapiro collection, 1919-2006
Physical Description 398 linear feet (333 document boxes 53 record storage cartons 23 small flat boxes 15 inch depth 16 medium flat boxes 21 inch depth)
Language(s) Material is in English, French, and German.
Access

This collection has no restrictions. The following boxes are located off-site: [55-665, 672-686]. You will need to request this material from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at least two business days in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room. Boxes 1-54 from Series VIII: Works of art remain on-site as do the glass plate negative boxes 666-671.

Arrangement

Arrangement

This collection is arranged in eight series.

Description

Summary

The collection of art historian Meyer Schapiro contains a vast range of material documenting the professor's personal, professional, and artistic life. The collection encompasses Schapiro's early academic training to his rise as a prominent theorist and historian of Medieval, Romanesque, Impressionist, and Modern art. His personal life is documented through early school records, course notes from college, typescripts and notes relating to his masters thesis and doctoral dissertation, and photographs and notebooks from his travels abroad between 1927 through 1957. The collection also houses an extensive set of Schapiro's own art work in various mediums that spans from the early 1920s through the 1980s. Schapiro was at the center of many artistic and political debates from the 1930s through the 1990s and his correspondence in the collection reflects his ongoing support of academics, artists, and philosophers. This includes his efforts to aid German and Jewish refugees of World War II. Schapiro's professional activities as a professor and lecturer are strongly represented in the collection. Materials include transcripts, outlines, research notes, and audio recordings of his lectures, many of which formed the basis for his written corpus. Also in the collection is Schapiro's extensive research notes on subject matter relating to art, politics, and sociology that are arranged alphabetically by subject. Included in the collection is a substantial array of Schapiro's published and unpublished writings, including articles, essays, manuscripts, published works, reviews, translations and poetry. Schapiro's intellectual curiosity necessitated his own constant reappraisal of his professional written work. This includes editing, clarifying, and expanding upon typescripts, outlines, and notes relating to lectures that he foresaw as being published. A constant source of support for Schapiro's professional and artistic output was his wife, Lillian Milgram Schapiro. After Schapiro's death, she would work to complete projects that Schapiro began and oversaw the management of his legacy. As a result, material in the collection that post-dates Schapiro's death in 1996 was generated by Lillian Milgram Schapiro and is noted throughout the finding aid.

  • Series I: Personal papers

    Materials in this series comprise records from Schapiro's personal and educational life and also include documentation from notable milestones in his career.

  • Series II : Correspondence

    Schapiro was a central figure in many important circles that range from art history, philosophy, architecture, sociology, science, and pedagogy. His reach is evident with those he kept in correspondence with throughout his life. Series II contains a substantial list of figures that are famous or well known in their field and illustrates how active Schapiro was in his professional and personal life.

    Schapiro did not differentiate his correspondence files between the personal and the professional. While he maintained and organized correspondence alphabetically by an individual's last name, he did not organize to the individual level. For example, files designated as "B" included material in several folders that span seven decades. Each folder housed a variety of individuals with a last name beginning with "B" or an institutional name that began with that letter.

    To clarify and bring entities and constituents to the foreground, all correspondence was systematically organized by individual or institution if they were either noteworthy or if they maintained a high volume of correspondence with Schapiro. For individuals and institutions not listed by name, consult the "general" correspondence files alphabetically.

    For Schapiro, materials in his correspondence files also served as subject files for individuals. Schapiro would collect clippings, articles, and other printed material relating to specific individual and file them with correspondence. These items have remained intact and kept as Schapiro filed them with the individual's last name in designated folders.

    Individuals working for specific entities such as universities, museums, and other institutions were also filed alphabetically according to either their last name or by their affiliation depending on Schapiro's choosing. If an individual is not listed in this series by last name, also consult institutions by name.

    Correspondence that post-dates Schapiro's death were generated by his wife Lillian Milgram Schapiro and maintained in this series.

    Correspondence found in other series of this collection was retained in their original files to preserve the context of the records they are associated with. When present, "correspondence" is indicated as a represented record type at the file level to facilitate their retrieval.

  • Series III: Professional Papers

    Series III encompasses all records affiliated with Schapiro's academic and professional life, this includes materials relating to lectures that were delivered outside his formal academic appointments.

  • Series IV: Writings

    This series houses all of Schapiro's writings, from published articles, books, and reviews, to unpublished manuscripts, essays, and translations. For writings that were published during Schapiro's lifetime, the 1995 publication Meyer Schapiro: the bibliography compiled by Lillian Milgram Schapiro was used throughout this series for consistency and to source where articles and reviews first appeared. Information relating to all material published posthumously and that post-dates the 1995 bibliography were retrieved from the archival material itself.

  • Series V: Research files

    Schapiro was fastidious about collecting research material and of creating and collecting material for research purposes. Series V houses all of Schapiro's research material he used on a personal and professional level.

  • Series VI: Exhibition announcements, invitations, and press releases

    Alongside Schapiro's academic background in Medieval and Romanesque art, he was very passionate about art of his contemporary time and of maintaining close relationships with working artists. Schapiro was a central figure in the art community of New York City since the 1930s and he visited art galleries and exhibitions throughout his life. Series VI is a collection of exhibition announcements, invitations, and press releases from New York City galleries that were sent to Schapiro and collected by him starting from 1920. After his death, Schapiro's wife, Lillian Milgram Schapiro, continued to receive and collect these materials until 2001.

    These collection exhibition announcements and invitations give a micro-history of New York City through the lens of the art gallery. Items in this series record who owned galleries, where their spaces were located, which artists were exhibited across time, and what art works were shown.

    Prior to being integrated into this collection in 2009, these materials were maintained in filing cabinets and housed at Columbia University's Visual Media Center located in Schermerhorn Hall.

    The original filing structure organized by Schapiro was maintained, which grouped an artist's last name in alphabetic and chronologic batches. Group exhibitions were filed in their own groupings chronologically. To facilitate retrieval of archival material, all files were consolidated following a consistent alphabetic pattern and subdivided into the following subseries: Subseries: VI.1: 1920-1942, Subseries: VI.2: A-E, 1943-2001, Subseries: VI.3: F-L, 1943-2001, Subseries: VI.4: M-R, 1943-2001, Subseries: VI.5: S-Z, 1943-2001, Subseries: VI.6: Group exhibitions, 1945-2001, Subseries: VI.7: Oversize, 1930s-1990s.

  • Series VII: Sound and video recordings

    Series VII chiefly houses a substantial set Schapiro's recorded lectures from the 1950s through the 1980s. It also includes a video recording created in 1988 by the Metropolitan Museum of Art which incorporates sound from Schapiro's lecture "The unity of Picasso's art" with images from the museum's permanent collection.

  • Series VIII: Works of art, 1920s-1980s

    Schapiro began his artistic practice early in his life when, in his teens, he attended evening art classes taught by artist John Sloan at the Hebrew Settlement House. Schapiro would continually sketch, draw, paint, and sculpt throughout his life, and this series houses the single largest collection of his works of art.

    Included in this collection are prints, drawings paintings, sculptures, printing plates, linoleum printing blocks, and sketchbooks from the 1920s through the 1980s. They include images he created at Columbia University, during his trips abroad in Europe and the Near East, portraits of his wife Lillian Milgram Schapiro, and friends, such as Whittaker Chambers.

    For Schapiro, the practice of art and the academic pursuit of the art historical discipline were two sides of the same token. Many of his drawings and paintings reflect his interest in issues of form, content, and visual perception, issues pertinent to his writings on art theory.

    In 1987, 65 of Schapiro's art works were displayed in the exhibition "Meyer Schapiro: Works of Art, 1919-1979" at Columbia University's Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery. Consult Series I: Personal papers, Subseries: I.4: Exhibitions for records relating to that exhibition.

    For all other administrative records relating to Schapiro's works of art, Subseries: VIII.1: Administrative records, 1980s-1990s

    The works of art in this series are divided by medium to facilitate discovery of the material as follows: Subseries: VIII.2: Prints and drawings, 1920s-1980s, Subseries: VIII.3: Paintings, 1930s-1980s, Subseries: VIII.4: Sculptures and printing plates, 1930s-1980s, Subseries: VIII.5: Linoleum printing blocks, circa 1930s-1960s, Subseries: VIII.6: Sketchbooks, 1960s.

Using the Collection

Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Restrictions on Access

This collection has no restrictions. The following boxes are located off-site: [55-665, 672-686]. You will need to request this material from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at least two business days in advance to use the collection in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library reading room. Boxes 1-54 from Series VIII: Works of art remain on-site as do the glass plate negative boxes 666-671.

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. The RBML maintains ownership of the physical material only. Copyright remains with the creator and his/her heirs. The responsibility to secure copyright permission rests with the patron.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Meyer Schapiro Collection; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

Related Material

Meyer Schapiro letters and manuscripts of Whittaker Chambers and James Thomas Farrell, 1923-1991, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University.

Accrual

No additions are expected

About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries, Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Processing Information

Papers processed Farris Wahbeh 2009-2010.

Finding aid written Farris Wahbeh 2009-2010.

Revision Description

Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.

Subject

Heading "CUL Archives:"
"Portal"
"CUL Collections:"
"CLIO"
"Nat'l / Int'l Archives:"
"ArchivedGRID"
Art -- History Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Columbia University -- Faculty Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Columbia University. Department of Art History and Archaeology Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
Schapiro, Meyer, 1904-1996 Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID
World War, 1939-1945 -- Europe Portal CLIO ArchiveGRID

History / Biographical Note

Biographical Note

Meyer Schapiro was a preeminent American art historian known for forging new art historical methodologies that incorporated an interdisciplinary approach to the study of works of art. An expert on early Christian, Medieval, and Modern art, Schapiro explored art historical periods and movements with a keen eye towards the social, political, and the material construction of art works. Credited with fundamentally changing the course of the art historical discipline, Schapiro's scholarly approach was dynamic and it engaged other scholars, philosophers, and artists. An active professor, lecturer, writer, and humanist, Schapiro maintained a long professional association with Columbia University as a student, lecturer, and professor.

1904-1919: Childhood and early education

Meyer Schapiro was born in Šiauliai, Lithuania on September 23, 1904 to a Jewish family that immigrated to the United States in 1907, when Schapiro was three years old. Meyer was the second of four children (Morris, 1903; Meyer, 1904; Mary, 1906; and Jacob 1911) to the parents Menahem (Nathan) and Fayge (Fannie) Schapiro.

Prior to moving to the United States, Schapiro's father Nathan was a child of the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment) movement in Lithuania. Nathan lost interest in religious studies and become, by his own account, a politically active free thinker that disassociated with religion and migrated towards an engagement with the secular world. These philosophical traits where transmitted to his son, Meyer, who actively engaged in a wide range of artistic, educational, and political pursuits in his early age.

The Schapiro family moved to the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, where Schapiro attended Public School 84 and/or 85 and graduated from the Boys High School, where he graduated and where one of his activities was to be involved in the Latin club. Schapiro's political and artistic pursuits at this time included being active with the Young People's Socialist League and attending evening art classes taught by painter John Sloan at the Hebrew Settlement Home.

1920-1929: Columbia University and Schapiro's college years:

Schapiro entered Columbia College in 1920 at the age of 16 with three scholarships, the Columbia, the Pulitzer, and the New York State Regents. He graduated with a bachelor of arts in 1924. His course load included a wide variety of classes on literature, anthropology, philosophy, mathematics, and art history and was influenced by his professors Franz Boas and John Dewey. Two of his roommates in his college years would continue to be his friends throughout his life, Clifton (Kip) Fadiman and Whittaker Chambers.

Schapiro would continue his graduate work at Columbia University, where he completed his master's thesis "The sculptures of Moissac" in 1926. As a graduate student at Columbia, Schapiro worked with Professor Ernest DeWald and took many of his classes, as evidenced by his course notes in his archival collection. During his college years, Schapiro was influenced by the art historian A. Kingsley Porter and, through his knowledge of Yiddish, learned French and German and became acquainted with the work of Wilhelm Vöge and Alois Riegl.

To complete research for his doctoral dissertation, Schapiro traveled for the first time to Europe and the Near East in 1926 through 1927 on a grant awarded by the Carnegie Corporation. This period of his life is documented in the Getty publication, Meyer Schapiro abroad: letters to Lillian and travel notebooks.

Schapiro completed his doctoral dissertation "The Romanesque sculpture of Moissac" in 1929 and his PhD was the fist in fine arts and archeology awarded by Columbia University. In 1931, Selections of his dissertation were published in the journal The Art Bulletin to critical praise because of his methodology of synthesizing diverse ideas to reinterpret the artistic production of the Romanesque. While Schapiro completed his academic work in 1929, he would not be conferred his doctoral degree until 1935 due to administrative bureaucracy. Schapiro's academic success at Columbia was unparalleled, and he was appointed to the faculty of fine arts in 1928, the same year he was married to Lillian Milgram Schapiro, a pediatrician who graduated from New York University and specialized on childhood tuberculosis.

1930-1949: The cultivation of Schapiro's professional life and the pre-war political horizon:

Schapiro's professional and scholarly life began to ascend as soon as earned his doctorate. His writings and reviews began to appear throughout journals, magazines, and newspapers. Schapiro's critique of historians using schematic approaches to understanding art and its production began in the early 1930s, such as his review of La Stylistique Ornamentale dans la Sculpture Romane by Jurgis Baltrusaitis.

In 1933, Schapiro moved with his wife, Lillian Milgram Schapiro, to the Greenwich Village neighborhood in New York City, where he would reside until his death in 1996.

Schapiro would continue to engage with politics, such as participating in the first American Artists' Congress in 1936, where he delivered the paper "The Social Bases of Art." But he was adamant of not reducing art to a disciplinary schema. As he writes in the aforementioned article, he sought not to "reduce art to economics or sociology or politics." He would continue to publish in political magazines such as The Marxist Quarterly, where he published "The Nature of Abstract Art," yet another critique on his friend Alfred H. Barr, Jr.'s exhibition "Cubism and Abstract Art."

In the 1930s, Schapiro visited Europe twice, once in 1931 and the other in 1939. He would meet and become acquaintances with many individuals associated with the Vienna School of art history, such as Ernst Gombrich, Emil Kaufmann, Otto Pächt, Hans Sedlmayr, and Fritz Saxl. Schapiro broke off his communication with Sedlmayr in the mid-1930s due to his increasing anti-Semitism. At the urging of his friend Theodor Adorno, Schapiro met with Walter Benjamin in 1939 in Paris, several months before the philosopher's death.

Throughout the years proceeding and following World War II, Schapiro was a consistent point of contact for refugees fleeing the hostile and repressive climate of Germany and Russia. He was a point of contact for many German and Jewish academics, philosophers, and artists fleeing Europe for the United States and he was a vocal critic of repressive regimes, such as Nazism and Fascism. After the atrocities committed under Stalin, Schapiro became disillusioned with politics, yet he continued his admiration for the political and maintained correspondence with political figures such as Leon Trotsky.

In 1936, Schapiro would be promoted to Assistant Professor at Columbia University and, by 1948, he would become an Associate Professor at the university.

Schapiro had an admiration for artists and continually sought to nurture their intellectual acuity through his lectures. Many artists have credited Schapiro with developing their historical and philosophical understanding of art history, especially at Columbia University, where students such as Helen Frankenthaler, Robert Motherwell and Ad Reinhardt attended his courses.

That Schapiro was a practicing artist himself added to his interest in being in constant dialogue with artists. As Wolf Kahn once noted, "For Meyer Schapiro art making and art history have always appeared as intrinsically related. What brings them together is seeing."

Throughout 1930s and 1940s, Schapiro was also a lecturer at New York University, New School for Social Research, and the Pierpont Morgan Library. Many artists became aware of his lectures, teaching methodologies, and philosophies through those venues, such as Alice Neel, Barnett Newman, Gordon Onslow-Ford, and Frank Stella.

1950-1979: Schapiro's continued rise as a prominent American art historian:

Starting in the 1950s, Schapiro's professional career became ever more active. In April 1950, he was invited by the gallery owner Samuel Kootz to co-curate with art critic Clement Greenberg the exhibition "Talent 1950: 23 artists receive a showing under the sponsorship of Meyer Schapiro and Clement Greenberg." He first books were also published in that decade, Vincent van Gogh in 1950 and Paul Cézanne in 1952. His theories on style, form, content, and abstraction continued to be developed, and he became an ongoing advocate of Modern art.

While the end of World War II and the on-going anti-Communism in the United States were sources of disillusionment for the political left in the late 1940s and early 1950s, several New York intellectuals, including Schapiro and Irving Howe, founded the political magazine Dissent.

Schapiro continued to teach at Columbia University and in 1952 he was promoted to Professor and in 1965 became a University Professor, the second such honor bestowed to a faculty member at Columbia at the time. His students in the 1950s and 1960s at Columbia and other institutions include several prominent artists, such as Allen Ginsberg, Donald Judd, Allan Kaprow, and Jack Kerouac.

Throughout the 1960s, Schapiro became a highly regarded fellow, visiting professor, and guest lecturer, both in the United States and Europe. In 1961, he delivered the Patten lectures at Indiana University which was devoted to Impressionism. Schapiro was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences from 1962 to 1963 at Stanford University. In 1965, he delivered the Weil Lecture at the Frank L. Weil Institute at Hebrew Union College. In 1966, Schapiro was the Charles Eliot Norton Professor at Harvard University, where he delivered the now published lectures on Romanesque architectural sculpture. At Oxford University, he was the Slade Professor in 1968. In that capacity, he delivered the Slade Lectures in the Fine Arts that was focused on Abstract art.

His work in both Romanesque and Modern art continued to be published in the 1960s. In 1964, the College Art Association of America published Schapiro's The Parma Ildefonsus: A Romanesque Illuminated Manuscript from Cluny, and Related Works. Schapiro's most famous published work of that decade, however, was the 1968 article "The Still Life as Personal Object" which rejected Martin Heidegger's philosophical interpretation of a painting by Vincent van Gogh that depicted a pair of shoes. Schapiro's article became a touchstone for the study of iconographical interpretation, semiotics, and art history.

In 1966, Schapiro received two recognitions: an honorary degree from the Jewish Theological Seminary of America and the Brandeis Commission Award for Notable Achievement from Brandeis University.

Schapiro's intellectual interest in semiotics and its relation to visual representation was made apparent in the 1973 publication Words and Pictures: On the Literal and the Symbolic in the Illustration of a Text.

By the early 1970s, Schapiro's influence in the field of art history began to be recognized in various forms at Columbia University. By 1973, he was promoted to the position of University Professor Emeritus. In 1975, he received an honorary doctorate from the university and also accepted the Alexander Hamilton Medal awarded by the Columbia College Alumni Association.

In 1974, a committee was formed to establish a chair in art history at Columbia University in Schapiro's honor. The group, who included George Jaffin, Barnett Newman, and William Rubin amongst others, was known as the Committee to Endow a Chair in Honor of Meyer Schapiro, and organized several artists to create original prints in an edition of 100 for a portfolio to raise funds for the position. Artists who contributed included Stanley William Hayter, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Alexander Liberman, Roy Lichtensetein, André Masson, Robert Motherwell, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Saul Steinberg, Frank Stella, and Andy Warhol.

Schapiro taught his last Columbia University course, which focused on Romanesque sculpture, in 1977.

By the late 1970s he was awarded several prestigious awards. The National Institute of Arts and Letters gave Schapiro the "Distinguished work in the arts" award in 1976. In 1977, the country of France bestowed its highest honor, the Commandeur de l'Order des Arts et des Lettres, to Schapiro.

At this time, Schapiro began to assemble his writings from the 1930s in order to publish them as collected volumes. The publishing firm George Braziller, Inc began to this project in 1977 with the first volume Selected Papers I: Romanesque Art. In 1978, the second volume Selected Papers II: Modern Art: 19th and 20th Centuries was published and, by 1979, Schapiro's third volume of collected papers, Selected Papers III: Late Antique, Early Christian, and Medieval Art, was released.

1980-1996: The final years and continued legacy:

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Schapiro would continue to lecture on the two art periods he was an expert on: Romanesque and Modern art. In 1979, his lecture " Hiberno-Saxon art: experiment with forms" was given at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and in 1980 he delivered the lecture "The unity of Picasso's art" at Columbia University.

In 1987, Rainer Crone and Elizabeth Ferrer curated the exhibition "Meyer Schaipro: Works of Art, 1919-1979" at Columbia University's Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery. For the first time, the public was able to view 65 works of art that Schapiro had created and finally introduced Schapiro to the public as a draftsman and painter. The exhibition also included a publication with essays by Thomas B. Hess and Wolf Kahn.

Throughout the 1980s, Schapiro, with the support of his wife Lillian Milgram Schapiro, focused on organizing and editing published and unpublished material and compiling these as sources for future publication. In many instances, these manuscripts were never published and included titles such as "Pablo Picasso's Guernica, " "The serpent with a woman's head in the temptation of Eve: researches on the invention of an image," "Sigmund Freud's Gradiva, " "Words in pictures: the perspectives of the viewer and the reader," "Relativity and the interpretation of modern painting," "Vico on the visual arts," and "Wolvinius Magister Phaber: the crowning of an artist in the early Middle Ages."

One further volume of his collected work was published during Schapiro's lifetime, the 1994 release of Selected Papers IV: Theory and Philosophy of Art: Style, Artist, and Society. In 1995, Mondrian: On the Humanity of Abstract Painting was published. In the same year, Schapiro's authoritative bibliography was issued by George Braziller, Inc., which was compiled by Lillian Milgram Schapiro.

In 1994, the Brooklyn Museum named its West Wing the Morris A. and Meyer Schapiro Wing in honor of Schapiro and his brother, the financier and philanthropist Morris A. Schapiro. In the same year, a special symposium titled "The significance of Meyer Schapiro: a symposium in honor of his 90th birthday" was held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Speakers in the program included David Rosand, Linda Nochlin, Theodore Reff, John Plummer, Linda Seidel, Michael Taussig, and Henri Zerner. Artists, such as Louise Bourgeois, Allan Kaprow, and George Segal also spoke at the symposium.

Meyer Schapiro passed away in his Greenwich Village home on March 3, 1996. He was survived by his wife, Lillian Milgram Schapiro, a daughter, Miriam Schapiro Grosof, and a son, Ernest Schapiro.

After his death, Lillian Milgram Schapiro would continue her husband's efforts in editing and compiling material for publication with the help of Schapiro's long time assistant Robin Sands, her nephew Daniel Esterman, and publisher George Braziller. With her efforts, the following books were published posthumously: Words, Script, and Pictures: The Semiotics of Visual Language (1996); Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions (1997); Worldview in Painting—Art and Society: Selected Papers, Vol. 5 (1999); The Unity of Picasso's Art (2000); Meyer Schapiro : his painting, drawing, and sculpture (2000); Language of Forms: Lectures on Insular Manuscript Art (2005); and Romanesque architectural sculpture: The Charles Eliot Norton lectures (2006).

Lillian Milgram Schapiro passed away on August 6, 2006 and, two years later, the Getty Research Institute published Meyer Schapiro abroad : letters to Lillian and travel notebooks. The book focused on Meyer's correspondence with Lillian Milgram Schapiro as he traveled across Europe and the Near East from 1926 through 1927.

Schapiro's scholarly legacy in the fields of early Christian, Medieval, Romanesque, and Modern art historical studies, and his role in shaping the landscape of art historical scholarship both in the United States and internationally, continues to be of intellectual and philosophical interest to historians and artists alike.