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   Hubert H. Harrison Papers, 1893-1927

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Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Hubert H. Harrison Papers; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

COinS Metadata available (e.g., for Zotero).

Summary Information


The paper of the brilliant and influential writer, orator, educator, critic, and political activist in Harlem during the early decades of the 20th century.

At a Glance

Bib ID:6134799 View CLIO record
Creator(s):Harrison, Hubert H.
Title:Hubert H. Harrison Papers, 1893-1927
Physical description:23 linear ft. (19 document boxes; 7 record storage cartons; 1 flat box).
Access: This collection is located on-site. Parts of this collection are closed due to preservation concerns. Please contact the Rare Book and Manuscript Library for more information.  More information »



The papers of Hubert H. Harrison are organized in nine series

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Scope and Content

The collection is composed of the personal papers--correspondence, manuscripts, documents, newspaper clippings, diaries, scrapbooks, memorabilia, photographs and books--of Hubert H. Harrison, an early 20th century African American activist, orator, writer, intellectual, and editor. The papers range from his early years in the United States to his death in 1927.

The bulk of the collection is printed material, mostly clippings and books. There is a substantial correspondence series which includes letters by many prominent writers and individuals such as John E. Bruce, Clarence Darrow, W.E.B. DuBois, Claude Mc Kay, H. L. Mencken, Eugene O'Neill, William Pickens, Adam Clayton Powell, Sr., A. Philip Randolph, Andy Razafkeriefo (Razaf), Joel A. Rogers, T. Lothrop Stoddard, William Monroe Trotter, Walter White, Carter G. Woodson, and Monroe N. Work.

Of particular note is the extensive collection of writings, both original manuscripts as well as clippings from newspapers and magazines by Hubert H. Harrison. In addition, there are numerous scrapbooks compiled by Harrison on a wealth of topics, as well as his diaries.

Many unique and important photographs of Harrison and his family, friends, and associates are contained in the collection along with a notable collection of books, evincing the breath and depth of Harrison's reading, as well as his interest in book collecting.

Harrison's active career as a lecturer and speaker is demonstrated by the numerous broadsides and pamphlets.

Series I: Correspondence

Sub-Series 1.1: A-Z

Series II: Writings by Hubert H. Harrison

Sub-Series 2.1: A-Z Writings

Sub-Series II.2: Sappho and Phaon (unpublished)

Series III: Writings by Others

Series IV: Diaries and Scrapbooks

Sub-Series 4.1: Diaries

Sub-Series 4.2: Subjects Clipped by Hubert H. Harrison

Sub-Series 4.3: The Negro American

Sub-Series 4.4: Writings And Documents By And About Hubert H. Harrison

Series V: Documents

Series VI: Photographs

Series VII: Memorabilia and Ephemera

Series VIII: Printed Material

Sub-Series 8.1: Broadsides, Pamphlets, Invitations, Programs, Etc.

Sub-Series 8.2: Perodicals

Sub-Series 8.3: Clippings

Sub-Series 8.4: Books

Series IX: Addendum

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Using the Collection


Access Restrictions

This collection is located on-site.

Parts of this collection are closed due to preservation concerns. Please contact the Rare Book and Manuscript Library for more information.

Restrictions on Use

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. Permission to publish material from the collection must be requested from the Curator of Manuscripts, Rare Book and Manuscript Library (RBML). The RBML approves permission to publish that which it physically owns; the responsibility to secure copyright permission rests with the patron.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Hubert H. Harrison Papers; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

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About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries. Rare Book and Manuscript Library; machine readable finding aid created by Columbia University Libraries Digital Library Program Division

Processing Information

Papers processed 2006 by April Holm and Ben Heller.

Machine readable finding aid generated from MARC-AMC source via XSLT conversion July 7, 2009 Finding aid written in English.
    2009-07-07 File created.

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Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.


HeadingCUL Archives:
CUL Collections:
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
Book reviewsPortalCLIOArchiveGRID


HeadingCUL Archives:
CUL Collections:
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
African American leadership--Archives.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African American leadership--History--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African American newspapers.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African American theater.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Biography.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Cultural assimilation--History--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Intellectual life--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--New York (State)--New York.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Orators.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Political activists.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Politics and government.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans--Social conditions.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
African Americans.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
American literature--African American authors.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Anti-imperialist movements.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Black nationalism--American history--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Black nationalism.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Bruce, John Edward.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Civil rights workers.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Civil rights.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Darrow, Clarence, 1857-1938.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Free thought.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Freedom of speech.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Harlem (New York, N.Y.)PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Harlem Renaissance--Drama.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Harlem Renaissance.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Harrison, Hubert H.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
McKay, Claude, 1890-1948.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
New York (N.Y.).--Dept. of Education.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
O'Neill, Eugene, 1888-1953.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Pickens, William, 1881-1954.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Powell, A. Clayton (Adam Clayton), 1865-1953.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Public speaking.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Race relations.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Randolph, A. Philip (Asa Philip), 1889-1979.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Razaf, Andy, 1895-1973.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Rogers, J. A. (Joel Augustus), 1880-1966.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Stoddard, Theodore L. (Theodore Lothrop), 1926-PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Trotter, William Monroe, 1872-1934.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
United States--Social conditions--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
White, Walter.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Woodson, Carter Godwin, 1875-1950.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Work, Monroe Nathan.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
World War, 1914-1918--African Americans.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID

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History / Biographical Note

Biographical Note

Born April 27, 1883, in Concordia, St. Croix, Danish West Indies, Hubert H. Harrison was a brilliant and influential writer, orator, educator, critic, and political activist in Harlem during the early decades of the 20th century. He played unique, signal roles, in what were the largest class radical movement (socialism) and the largest race radical movement (the New Negro/Garvey movement) of his era. Labor and civil rights activist A. Philip Randolph described him as "the father of Harlem radicalism" and historian Joel A. Rogers considered him "the foremost Afro-American intellect of his time" and "one of America's greatest minds." Following his December 17, 1927, death due to complications of an appendectomy, Harrison's important contributions to intellectual and radical thought were much neglected

In 1900 Harrison moved to New York City where he worked low-paying jobs, attended high school, and became interested in freethought and socialism. His first of many published letters to the editor appeared in the "New York Times" in 1903. During his first decade in New York the autodidactic Harrison read and wrote constantly and was active in Black intellectual circles at St. Benedict's and St. Mark's Lyceums, the White Rose Home, and the Young Men's Christian Association. He also attended functions of the interracial Sunrise Club as well as Single Tax, Socialist, and Freethought-influenced activities. Beginning in 1907, he made his living as a postal clerk. In 1909 Harrison married Irene Louise ("Lin") Horton, and the following year their first of five children was born. Their relationship went through difficulties and they periodically lived in separate residences. In 1910 Harrison wrote two letters critical of Booker T. Washington that were published in the "New York Sun". Subsequent retaliatory efforts by Washington's "Tuskegee Machine" cost Harrison his postal employment and for the rest of his life he and his family were burdened with financial problems.

Between 1911 and 1914 Harrison was the leading Black activist, orator, and theoretician in the Socialist Party of New York and a prominent supporter of the Industrial Workers of the World. He made important theoretical contributions by emphasizing that true democracy and equality for African Americans implied a revolution startling to even think of and by advocating that socialists champion the cause of African Americans, that they develop a special appeal to and for African Americans, and that they affirm the duty of all socialists to oppose race prejudice. Socialist Party theory and practice led Harrison to conclude that Party leaders, like organized labor leaders, put the white "Race first and class after."

During his socialist years and after Harrison pioneered the tradition of Harlem soap-box oratory, which was subsequently carried on by Randolph, Marcus Garvey, Malcolm X, and others. In 1914-15, after leaving the Socialist Party he was active with freethought and other radical secular movements, with free speech and birth control struggles, and with his own "Radical Forum." In 1915-1916, after writing probing theater reviews and delivering talks on the racial significance of World War I, Harrison concentrated work in Harlem's African American community and led in the development of the New Negro Movement.

In 1917 Harrison founded the first organization (The Liberty League) and the first newspaper ("The Voice") of the New Negro Movement--the race conscious, internationalist, mass based movement for "political equality, social justice, civic opportunity, and economic power" that laid the basis for the Garvey movement and contributed significantly to the social and literary climate leading to Alain Locke's well known publication "The New Negro". The Liberty League's "race first" program called for enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, federal anti-lynching legislation, militant resistance to racist attacks, and a political voice. In 1917, Harrison's first book, "The Negro and the Nation" was published.

Harrison became a nationally recognized Black protest leader in 1918 when he co-chaired (with William Monroe Trotter) the Liberty Congress, the major Black protest effort of WWI. The Congress put forth demands for democracy at home, an end to segregation and disfranchisement, and federal anti-lynching legislation. His wartime protest efforts not only challenged the position taken by W.E.B. DuBois, Joel E. Spingarn, and the NAACP, they also served as precursors to the March on Washington Movement during World War II, which was led by Randolph, and the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom during the Vietnam War, which was led by Randolph and Martin Luther King, Jr.

In 1919 Harrison served as editor of the New Negro magazine and then, in 1920, he became the principal editor of Marcus Garvey's "Negro World", which he re-shaped into the major radical race-conscious, political and literary, publication of the era. While writing for the Negro World Harrison discussed history, politics, literature, theater, poetry, international affairs, religion, and science. He also initiated and developed a "Poetry for the People" section and what he described as the first regular book review section by a Black author in history. In 1920 Harrison's second book, "When Africa Awakes", was published. By August of 1920 Harrison was highly critical of Garvey's methods, claims, and actions and he ceased serving as managing editor of the "Negro World", though he continued to write articles and editorials for the paper into 1922.

From 1922 until his sudden death in 1927, Harrison, despite periods of ill health, continued to write and lecture prolifically. He published in the "Amsterdam News"; "Interstate Tattler"; "Modern Quarterly"; "New Republic"; "Nation"; "New York Times"; "New York Tribune"; "New York World"; and "Pittsburgh Courier". He lectured for the New York City Board of Education as staff lecturer from 1922-1926. He also spoke at universities, libraries, before community groups, and on street corners. In 1924, he founded the International Colored Unity League and in 1927 he edited "The Voice of the Negro".

Harrison's unexpected death following an appendectomy on December 17, 1927, left behind his widow, four daughters, and a young son. After a massive Harlem funeral he was honored through the creation of the Hubert H. Harrison Memorial Church, which no longer exists. His radicalism on so many issues -- race, class, religion, war, democracy, sexuality, literature and the arts -- and the fact that he was a forthright critic of individuals, organizations, and ideas of influence, were major reasons for his subsequent neglect.

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