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   Shihui Xiong papers, 1907-1974

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Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Shihui Xiong papers; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

COinS Metadata available (e.g., for Zotero).

Summary Information


The Shihui Xiong papers consist of materials documenting Xiong’s life and political career from 1907 to 1974. The highlights of the papers are the manuscripts, which include six volumes of Xiong’s memoir, seven volumes of diaries over 43 years, and approximately 440 original handwritten speech scripts. The photographs and political and military affairs related documents focus on Xiong’s active involvement in the northeast region and abroad from 1930 to 1948. The papers overall consist of correspondence, calligraphy scrolls, diaries, a diploma, documents, letter books, manuscripts of published and unpublished works, maps, newspaper clippings, notes, oversize military notices, poems, photographs, photograph albums, reports, and other materials.

At a Glance

Bib ID:4078880 View CLIO record
Creator(s):Xiong, Shihui, 1892-1974.
Title:Shihui Xiong papers, 1907-1974
Physical description:8 linear feet; 15 manuscript boxes, 1 record carton, 4 oversize flat folders, and 1 scroll box.
Access: This collection is located on-site. Panoramic photographs in Box 15 require special permission to view due to conservation concerns.  More information »



The collection is arranged in five series, one of which is arranged in 3 subseries. 該檔案分為五個系列, 其中有一系列有三小系列。

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Scope and Content

The Shihui Xiong papers document the political life of Xiong Shihui. The collection contains papers, photographs, and calligraphy scrolls by Xiong Shihui, dating from 1907 to 1974, with the bulk of the materials focusing on his involvement in the northeast region from 1930 to 1948. The papers, including correspondence with prominent political figures such as Chiang Kai-shek, T.V. Soong, and Ho Ying-chin, typewritten and handwritten manuscripts of Xiong Shihui’s memoir, diaries, speeches, notes, and documents provide perspectives on his life, his colleagues, and his politics. The photographs and albums mainly depict Xiong’s family and friends, his political and military engagement in China, and his visits in other countries. The collection also contains two calligraphy scrolls by Xiong.

Series 1: Correspondence, 信函, 1930-1952

Correspondence from well-known Chinese political figures such as Chiang, Kai-shek, T.V. Soong, to Xiong, as well as two volumes of letters and reports, and handwritten drafts from Xiong, dating from 1930 and 1952.

Series 2: Manuscripts, 手稿, 1907-1974

Typewritten and handwriting manuscripts of Xiong Shihui’s memoir, essays, diaries, and speeches dating from 1907 to 1974.

Subseries 2.1: Memoir "Hai Sang Ji" and other essays, 海松集和其他文章, 1907-1950

Six typewritten volumes of Xiong’s memoir dating from 1907 to 1949, some handwritten and typewritten drafts of the memoir, review letters from friends, and other undated and unpublished manuscripts of long and short essays written by Xiong.

Subseries 2.2: Diary, 日記, 1930-1974

Seven portfolios of diaries dating from 1930-1942. The diaries describe Xiong’s daily activities, political life, meetings with various well-known modern historical Chinese figures, as well as his impression of others.

Subseries 2.3: Speeches, 講稿, 1931- 1947

Primarily handwritten speech manuscripts dating from 1931 to 1947. His speech reflect his perspectives and emphasis on topics such as economics, education, ethics, policies, politics, philosophy, military affairs, three principles of the people, New Life Movement, social problems, and women’s role in society. Folders should be open from right side. Typewritten Speech Index is also available upon request.

Series 3: Military and Political Documents, 軍政事務文件, 1943-1948

Documents, notes, newspaper clippings, and reports related to the socio-political, military affairs, territorial changes, and economic situations in the Northeastern Region dating from 1943 to 1948. Series also include documents and reports on foreign relations such as a printed copy of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance signed in 1945, the Statement of Appreciation issued in 1946, and one volume of “A Report of the Military Mission of the Republic of China on Negotiations with Soviet Military Authorities for the Withdrawal of Soviet Troops from the Northeastern Provinces” describing the daily proceedings of meetings and negotiations between the two countries from October 1945 to June 1946.

Series 4: Photographs, 照片, 1921-1973

Contains albums and photographs depicting Xiong and his family and friends, visits to different cities in China and other countries dating from 1921 to 1973.

Series 5: Realia, 物品, 1924, 1971

Two calligraphy scrolls from dating 1971 and a Diploma from the Japanese Army War College Xiong received in 1924.

Series 6: Printed materials, 書類, 1941-1970

Please request the following books via CLIO. They were separated from the collection to be catalogued as rare books.

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Using the Collection


Access Restrictions

This collection is located on-site.

Panoramic photographs in Box 15 require special permission to view due to conservation concerns.

Restrictions on Use

Single photocopies may be made for research purposes. The RBML maintains ownership of the physical material only. Copyright remains with the creator and his/her heirs. The responsibility to secure copyright permission rests with the patron.

Preferred Citation

Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Shihui Xiong papers; Box and Folder; Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library.

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About the Finding Aid / Processing Information

Columbia University Libraries. Rare Book and Manuscript Library; machine readable finding aid created by Columbia University Libraries Digital Library Program Division

Processing Information

The papers were catalogued by Christina Hilton Fenn in July 1989, processed in 2007, and reprocessed by Yingwen Huang in 2018. The title of the papers was changed from Shih-hui Hsiung papers to Shihui Xiong papers in 2018 to allow better discovery and to conform to the creator’s LCNAF record. The papers combined two accessions in 1974 and 1975. Minimally processed to the folder level. Seven panoramic photographs in Box 15 should be subjected to conservation rehousing and repair for straightening and inactive mold issue. Printed materials (4 volumes) were cataloged separately by the Rare Book division and to be searchable in the catalog.

Machine readable finding aid generated from MARC-AMC source via XSLT conversion June 26, 2009 Finding aid written in English.
    2009-06-26 File created.
    2018-08-08 EAD finding aid was updated.

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Subject Headings

The subject headings listed below are found in this collection. Links below allow searches at Columbia University through the Archival Collections Portal and through CLIO, the catalog for Columbia University Libraries, as well as ArchiveGRID, a catalog that allows users to search the holdings of multiple research libraries and archives.

All links open new windows.


HeadingCUL Archives:
CUL Collections:
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
Letter books.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Letters (correspondence).PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Personal papers.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Photograph albums.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Photographs, Color.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Scrolls (information artifacts).PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
black-and-white photographs.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID


HeadingCUL Archives:
CUL Collections:
Nat'l / Int'l Archives:
Calligraphy, Chinese--History--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Chen, Cheng, 1898-1965.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Chiang, Kai-shek, 1887-1975.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Foreign relations--Great Britain.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Foreign relations--Japan.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Foreign relations--Soviet Union.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Foreign relations--United States.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History, Military.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History--Civil War, 1945-1949.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History--Northern Expedition, 1926-1928.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--History--Republic, 1912-1929.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Politics and government--1912-1949.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Politics and government--20th century.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China--Relations--Soviet Union.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
China.--Lu jun.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Dong, Yanping, 1896-.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Liu, Anqi, 1903-.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Lu jun jun guan xue xiao.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Manchuria (China)--History.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Manchuria (China).PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Zhang, Qun, 1889-.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID
Zhongguo guo min dang.PortalCLIOArchiveGRID

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History / Biographical Note


Xiong, Shihui (Wade-Giles: Hsiung, Shih-hui; Hsiung, Shih-fei; Pinyin: Xiong, Shihui; Traditional Chinese: 熊式輝; Simplified Chinese: 熊式辉; Courtesy name: Tianyi 天翼; Pseudonym: Xuesong 雪松) was born on May 19th, 1893, in Anyi, Jiangxi Province of China. He attended Baoding Military Academy in 1915. He later attended the Japanese Army War College and graduated on November 29th, 1924. He returned to Canton and became the Chief Instructor at the Yunnan Army Military Officers School. When the Northern Expedition began in 1927, Xiong was appointed the Deputy Commander of multiple military divisions and a member of the Jiangxi provincial political committee. In 1930, Xiong directed military operations against Communist forces in the Northeast (also known as Manchuria). In the following years, he was appointed by Chiang Kai-shek as the Chief-of-Staff in the Nanchang headquarters and the Governor of Jiangxi province where he was responsible for the civil affairs, education, and peace preservation in the province. After a decade of Xiong’s provincial governance in Jiangxi, he was assigned to be the Chief of the Chinese Military Mission to the United States in 1942. After returning to China in 1943, he was appointed the Secretary General of the Central Planning Board, which was responsible for wartime and postwar reconstruction and affairs. In 1945, he accompanied T.V. Soong to Moscow for negotiation and the signing of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. As the conflict between the Chinese Communists and the Nationalists escalated in the Northeast, Chen Cheng was assigned to replace Xiong as the Director of the Northeast headquarters in 1947, while Xiong was given a post as the Strategy Adviser in Nanjing. After the nationalist power collapsed in mainland China in 1949, Xiong and his family moved to Hong Kong, Macao, and then later to Bangkok. Xiong moved to Taiwan in 1954, where he lived until he died in 1974.

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