Rare Book & Manuscript Library

Animal Advocates Oral History Collection, 1999-2004


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Box Anderson Binder, Box 8 Will Anderson, 2004 September 30 and 2004 October 10

In this two session interview, Will Anderson reflects on his development as an activist for the environment and animals. Among issues examined are his decision to become a vegetarian and the impact of personal diet choices on the environment. Anderson talks about his education, decisions about college, his work with the Peace Corps, service in the United states Armed Forces (USAF), and his honorable discharge after becoming a conscientious objector. Additionally, he explains the connection between the yearlong travel to Europe and India and his worldview, the development of his sensitivity to animals, and his activist spirit. Anderson discusses his work with Greenpeace, Native American communities, involvement in protest activity and subsequent arrests, and founding of Ecology House and the Marine Animal Coalition (MAC). He also discusses his battle with cancer and experiences as a gay man.

There is also one box of attachments, mostly related to Anderson's work with the Progressive Animal Welfare Society (PAWS), including documentation of the opposition to the Makah whaling activities and protection of orcas. There are two videocassettes in the attachments:Meet the Gray WhalesandOmak Suicide Race: "The Race of Disgrace."

Interview conducted by Charles Hardy.

Will Anderson (1948-), environmental activist, was raised and educated in Illinois and Washington. His hometown allowed him to experience Chicago's Lincoln Park and Lake Michigan, where he enjoyed walking and exploring the landscape, and he frequently visited the Museum of Natural History. Anderson entered the United States Air Force (USAF), and later declared himself a conscientious objector to war and was honorably discharged. Once dismissed, Anderson earned an Associate's degree from Spokane Community College and later completed his undergraduate degree in Portland, Oregon. He also travelled through Europe and India for one year. He has worked for Greenpeace in several capacities, and was responsible for founding Greenpeace Alaska. Anderson was also a partner of Ecology House, a chain of environmentally-themed franchised gift stores, and the Progressive Animal welfare Society (PAWS). Anderson has also been employed as a real estate agent and with the Orca Recovery Campaign, a project of Earth Island's Marine Mammal Project. At the time of the interview, he remained involved in activism in the following areas: offshore oil industry's impact on marine mammals; Alaska aerial wolf hunt; Pribilof fur seal hunt; squid drift net fishery; mountain goat hunt in Olympic National park, environmental impact processes (DEIS/EIS), Tribal subsistence and take issues; the Makah gray whale hunt; religious ritual slaughter; Omak Suicide Race; slaughterhouse auctions; commercial egg production; leg hold traps, animal abuse investigations; harp seal hunt; invasive laboratory experimentation; roadside animal shows; marine mammal captivity; and rodeos.

Box Capaldo Binder, Box 1-3 Theadora Capaldo, December 3 and 2000 April 28

In this two-session interview, Theadora Capaldo discusses the range of her activities in animal advocacy. She begins by describing her youth in North Shore, Massachusetts and the attitudes towards animals that she encountered. Capaldo describes becoming an anti-vivisectionist in 6th grade after reading a teacher's material from the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) and experiences rescuing stray dogs as a youth. She discusses her education in the mental health fields and the connections between human abuse and animal abuse, and the influence of feminism and environmentalism on her outlook.

Capaldo discusses her increased involvement with NEAVS in the late 1970s after completing her doctoral thesis. She analyzes the effectiveness of the NEAVS throughout its history and its activities throughout the 1980s and discusses her own activities with NEAVS and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). She analyzes the scientific community's position on vivisection and characteristics of vivisectors. She also discusses the activities and strategies of NEAVS at the time of the interview, including education, recruiting, working with other activist groups, and "winnable issues."

The interview is accompanied by three boxes of supplemental materials, most of which correspond to the interviews' footnotes. These include numerous NEAVS documents and publications, such asNEAVS ReporterandNEAVS Update. The materials also include videocassettes published by PETA and the following books: Cleveland Amory'sRanch of Dreams, C. Ray Greek and Jean Swingle Greek'sSacred Cows and Golden Geese, Michael W. Fox'sSuperpigs and Wondercorn, and Peter Singer'sAnimal Liberation and Ethics into Action.

Interview conducted by Martin Rowe.

Theadora Capaldo (1948-) became attuned to animal rights issues during childhood and has been active in animal advocacy organizations for decades. She has served as president and executive director of the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) and its educational affiliate the Ethical Science and Education Coalition (ESEC). She is a co-founder of the Carriage Horse Action Committee of Boston and was New England Regional Outreach Coordinator for the Mobilization for Animals' primate rallies, and has held leadership roles in other organizations, as well.

Professionally, Capaldo is a psychotherapist. She has maintained a private practice, has taught college-level psychology, and has been director of counseling at a liberal arts college. She has drawn connections between her work and activism through organizations like Psychologists for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PsyETA) and through her outlook on moral development and compassion.

Box Cotrell Free Binder, Box 4 Ann Cottrell Free, 1999 September 21, 1999 September 30, 1999 October 1, and 2000 July 25

Over four sessions, Ann Cotrell Free describes her life, advocacy for animals, and the philosophical underpinning for her activism. She begins by discussing the growth of her consciousness about treatment of animals during her childhood, including incidents with domestic animals, agricultural animals, transport animals, and fox hunts. She describes activism while attending Barnard College, and analyzes how inconsistent attitudes cause injustice. She discusses her entry into journalism and coverage of World War II, working for the United Nations Relief in China, and working for the Marshall Plan in Europe.

She discusses the return to the United States and increased involvement in with animal rights, and she describes the different activities and outlooks of various organizations: the Washington Animal Rescue League, Washington Humane Society, American Humane Association (AHA), and the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS). She discusses her involvement with the Human Slaughter Act of 1958. She describes advocating for better conditions for laboratory dogs, the passage of the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966, and the role of Fay Brisk.

She discusses animal-related ethics, including those of Ruth Harrison, Peter Singer, and Albert Schweitzer. She also speaks about her own book on Schweitzer. She analyzes conflict and collaboration among animal advocates, perceptions in larger society, and reflections on activism.

The transcript contains appendix of biographical material. The interview as taken by David Cantor and Kenneth Shapiro

There is also one box of attachements relating to the interview by footnotes. These include articles by Free and copies of her books Animals, Nature, and Albert Schweitzer and No Room Save in the Heart: Poetry and Prose on Reverence for Life - Animals, Nature, and Humankind.

Interview conducted by David Cantor and Kenneth Shapiro.

Anne Cottrell Free (1916-2004) was a journalist, author poet, and advocate for animals. She was born in Richmond, Virginia, and attended Barnard College, graduating in 1938. She worked as a journalist during World War II, was a part of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation in China, and worked with the Marshall Plan. Professionally, she would write for a range of publications includingThe Richmond Times-Dispatch,Newsweek,The Chicago Sun, and theNew York Herald Tribune. Her advocacy on behalf of animals included helping to establish a national wildlife refuge in Maine, advocating for livestock protection, testimony before congress about the National Zoo's deer hunts, spearheading a campaign for a humane society in Puerto Rico, and blowing the whistle on the Food and Drug Administration's treatment of laboratory dogs. She wrote three books pertaining to animals:Forever the Wild Mare,Animals Nature and Albert Schweitzer, andNo Room, Save in the Heart. She also was active in the struggles for civil rights, women's rights, and aid for the blind

Box Cummings Binder Robert Cummings, 1999 December 4 and 2000 April 28

In this two session interview, Robert Cummings discusses his activities with the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA), with a particular focus on the legal aspects of animal protection. He begins by describing his initial involvement with the MSPCA as a first major account after starting in law in 1957. He describes MSPCA efforts to keep shelter dogs from being used in research at Harvard, legal work regarding animals, and the nature of professionalism.

He analyzes the MSPCA's moderate and results-oriented approach in contrast to approach of activist Brian Davies, and discusses collaborations and differences with the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS). He addresses fundraising and the characteristics of donors. He speaks about mistreatment of farm animals including abused horses, issues in livestock transport, and the treatment of animals for halal/kosher markets.

In the second session, Cummings begins by discussing connections between violence against animals and humans in legal context. He also discusses the MSPCA's activities and future plans at the time of the interview.

Interview conducted by Martin Rowe.

Robert Cummings was an attorney and animal activist. In his work at the Boston law firm Nixon Peabody LLP, where he worked from 1957, he focused on public utilities law, general corporate law, and non-profits. At the time of the interview, Cummings had been involved with the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for over forty years and was serving as Chairman of the Board of Directors. He was also the Treasurer of the World Society for the Protection of Animals. His interests and activities in these organizations have touched on the legal and criminal aspects of animal cruelty, fundraising, publicity, outreach, education, overseas projects, animal shelters, vivisection, and the transport and slaughter of animals.

Box Kilroy Binder Walter Kilroy, 1999 December 3 and 2000 April 28

Walter Kilroy beings this two session interview by discussing his childhood experiences with animals and beginning to work as the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals's Angell Memorial Hospital as a kennel attendant at the age of sixteen. He discusses experiences working as an ambulance driver for the MSPCA, laws on animal abuse in the 1950s, and the law enforcement activities of the MSPCA. He discusses his time working at the American Fondouk veterinary hospital in Fez, Morocco from 1961-1962 and attitudes towards animals in Morocco. He also discusses a range of issues about animals from the 1970s to 1990s including trapping, overpopulation, spay and neuter campaigns, euthanasia at human societies, pet shops, treatment of animals at zoos, and environmentalism.

Interview conducted by Martin Rowe.

Walter Kilroy (1939-) worked for decades at the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA). His interests in animals began during childhood. In 1955, Kilroy began working at the MSPCA's Angell Memorial Hospital in 1955, first as a kennel attendant, then as a veterinary nurse, and later as an ambulance and rescue driver. Over the next four decades he held various positions at the MSPCA including: law enforcement (1959-1960), Assistant Director of the American Fondouk in Fez Morocco (1961-1962), Assistant Director of Law Enforcement (1963-1967), Administrative Assistant to the President (1973-1975), Director of Operations (1976-1977), Vice President and Registered Lobbyist (1977-1984), Executive Vice President (1985-1987). He became Director of Law Enforcement in 1989. Issues of particular interest to him included wildlife, trapping, zoos, pet shops, and overpopulation of animals.

Box Kullberg Binder, Box 5 John F. Kullberg, 2000 October 10 and 2001 January 7

John Kullberg begins this interview discussing his youth, his involvement with the Christian Brothers, and the philosophical concerns the led to his departure from the order. He then discusses his subsequent education and teaching experience in English. He describes his experience as director of admissions at Columbia University's School of Law, including issues of race and gender in admission. He discusses his involvement with animal protection through Christine Stevens, involvement with the Animal Welfare Institute, and Gretchen Wyler's lawsuit against the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Kullberg discusses at length his involvement with the ASPCA as a board member and his thirteen-year tenure as president, including finances, board membership, animal control contracts with New York City, and euthanasia practices. He also discusses his thoughts on figures and organizations in the animal rights movement, including Peter Singer, Henry Spira, and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). He also discusses animal rights ethics, religion, and the relationship with other efforts, including the peace movement. The interview was conducted by Julia Miles.

There is also one box of footnotes and supplementary materials including theAnimal Rights Handbook, a videocassette of another interview with Kullberg, and a cassette titled "Introduction to Animal Rights."

Interview conducted by Julia Miles.

John Francis Kullberg (1939-2003) was a teacher, university administrator, and had a leadership role in many animal advocacy organizations. He left home at the age of 16 to join the Christian Brothers, but departed before taking final vows, because of concerns with the monastic vow of obedience. From there, he had a wide-ranging career in education including as a teacher, professor, and as director of admissions and assistant dean at the Columbia University School of Law. He served as president of American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) from 1978-1991, president of Guiding Eyes for the Blind from 1991-1993, and was executive director of the United States Wildlife Land Trust, starting in 1994. At the time of the interview, he had served on the board of directors of ASPCA, the American Humane Association, the New York State Humane Association, the National Coalition to Protect Our Pets, the Farm Animal Reform Movement, and the Society for Animal Protective Legislation. He was also an advisor to the Food Animal Concerns Trust. Additionally, he was principal editor ofThe Animal Rights Handbookand executive producer of the documentaryWhere Have All the Dolphins Goneregarding problems with the tuna industry.

Box Luke Binder Carter Luke, 2000 April 28

Carter Luke begins the one session by discussing his childhood, early interest in animals, and experiences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He describes interactions with Professor Harry Harlow and Steven Suomi, researchers using primates for psychological research, and discusses the importance of civil interactions despite philosophical differences. He describes starting with the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA). He also analyzes activities at the MSPCA during the 1990s, the 1993 Year of the Cat national campaign, coalitions between organizations, and the interactions between the veterinary and humane communities.

Interview conducted by Martin Rowe.

Carter Luke was interested in wild and companion animals from childhood, and he received a B.A. in Mathematics and Wildlife Ecology from the University of Wisconsin and did graduate work in Elementary Education. He taught elementary school from 1973-1976 and worked construction on and off through the 1960s and mid-1970s.

In 1977 Luke left teaching to become shelter manager and humane officer at the Coulee Region Humane Society in Wisconsin. Six years later he accepted the position of Executive Director of the Dane County Humane Society in Madison, Wisconsin. In 1985, he became Director of Shelters for the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and he became the organization's Vice President of Humane Services in 1988.

Box Larson Binder Sandra Rae Larson, 1999 December 3

In this one session interview, Sandra Rae Larson discusses the development of her interest in animal advocacy from her childhood through adult life and professional career. This interview contains Larson's reflections on working as a large animal veterinarian in Arkansas, a microbiologist in Arizona, and her burgeoning spirit of activism while working for the Joslin Diabetes Foundation in Massachusetts. The discussion on CEASE details strategies used by the organization to stop the use of pound animals in medical experimentation in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. The transcript includes Larson's reminiscences of the differences between both organizations and the continuation and extension of the marketing campaign she spearheaded to end use of pound dogs. Additionally, Larson discusses the transformation of NEAVS into a more activist organization that addressed animal cruelty from a programmatic perspective, and leadership transition. The latter years covered in the interview focus on her work through education programs she developed including the LivingEarth Learning Project (LELP); and the Ethical Science and Education Coalition (ESEC).

Interview conducted by Martin Rowe.

Sandra Rae Larson (1950-), was an animal activist with a background in education and scientific research. Larson's interest in animals began as a child rescuing and caring for stray animals in Los Angeles. She attended college with the goal of majoring in biology and becoming a veterinarian. Upon completion of college, Larson was employed professionally as a veterinarian and as a microbiologist before becoming an animal activist in the late 1970s and 1980s. Larson also worked as a Senior Research Assistant at the Joslin Diabetes Institute in Massachusetts and where she became active in fighting against use of pound dogs for research purposes. Larson served on the Board of Directors for New England Anti-Vivisection Society's (NEAVS) and was also active with Coalition to End Animal Suffering in Experimentation (CEASE) while in Massachusetts. She created education programs for children including the Students Think about Animal Rights (STAR), later renamed the Living Earth Learning Project (LELP); and the Ethical Science and Education Coalition (ESEC) in the 1990s. At the time of the interview, Larson who operated an animal sanctuary in Connecticut.

Box Mason Binder, Box 6 Jim Mason, 1999 November 16 and 1999 November 17

Jim Mason begins this three session interview discussing his experiences growing up on a farm in Missouri during the 1950s. He analyzes at length the rural outlooks on animals, including in agriculture and hunting. He describes his initial interests in biology, entry into college as a pre-med student, and eventual decision to pursue law career instead. He describes his introduction to animal rights while at law school, and becoming more politically conscious in the 1970s following the death of his wife and as the result of his work as a legal services attorney in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

Mason describes the animal rights movement in the 1970s and attending a conference in Cambridge, England. He speaks about research onAnimal Factoriesand the public's response. He also describes the founding ofThe Animals' Agendaand his eventual departure. He also discusses his writing ofAn Unnatural Order. Finally, he analyzes activities and characteristics of the animal rights movement in the 1980s, including activist demographics, rallies and actions, factory farming, reaction of the media, and strategies.

The interview is accompanied by one box of attachments, including writings by Mason and issues ofThe Animals' Agenda.

Interview conducted by Martin Rowe.

Jim Mason (1940-) grew up on a farm in Missouri. During the 1970s he became active in many radical causes including fair housing, racial equality, and animal advocacy. Mason spent two years researching factory farms with ethicist Peter Singer, which resulted in the publication ofAnimal Factoriesin 1980. Mason also helped found the magazineThe Animals' Agendain 1979, which was initially a quarterly and later a monthly. Mason left the publication in 1986, and shortly thereafter began research on the origins of animal abuse and agriculture. This resulted in the publication ofAn Unnatural Orderin 1993. At the time of the interview he was working for Two Mauds, Inc., a foundation that helped fund grassroots animal advocacy projects around the United States

Box Orlans Binder F. Barbara Orlans, 2001 December 20 and 2002 January 16

In this two session interview, F. Barbara Orlans discusses her early life including family, her choice to become a vegetarian as a youth, hometown, the place of religion in her life, and her undergraduate and graduate education in England. Orlans discusses her decision to come to the United States in the years following World War II because of more abundant job opportunities. She details her work at Johns Hopkins University and her transition to the National Institute for Health (NIH); the impetus for her interest in animal advocacy, as well as her role in founding the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW). Orlans discusses the politics within SCAW which lead to her departure, the organization's decision to revise its bylaws, and the personal effects ten years of working to build the organization. Additional attention is devoted to her partnership with Christine Stevens and their efforts to lobby elected officials in Washington, D.C. to create guidelines and regulations for people involved in animal care, and the possibility of requiring licensing to ensure the humane treatment of animals. The interview includes a critique of the American animal care standards versus other countries and their use in medical research and experimentation. Orlans also discusses the perils of publishing related to two of her books,Scientific Perspectives on Animal Welfare, andAnimal Care: From Protozoa to Small Mammals; as well as article publication in scholarly journals. Orlans discusses her views on People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals' (PETA) tactics in the late 1980s; other animal rights; gains in animal advocacy over the last 30 years; professional scientific associations, such as the American Psychological Association (APA) and American Physiological Association (APA); and the lack of action among groups that use experimental animals.

Interview conducted by Kenneth Shapiro.

F. Barbara Orlans, (1928-2010) was an animal activist raised and educated in England. As an undergraduate she studied physiology and anatomy. Between her undergraduate and graduate studies, Orlans worked as a biochemist, performing diagnostics analysis. While completing on both her master's PhD degrees she performed animal research. Upon completion of her doctorate in 1956, she moved to the United States. Orlans worked, during her early years in the states, at Johns Hopkins University before moving to the National Institute of Health (NIH) where she was a productive researcher with a consistent publication record. Her interest in animal activism grew from an awareness of the lack of training provided to laboratory technicians (animal caretakers) as well as animal treatment by high school students at the Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Orlans collaborated with animal activist Christine Stevens (1918–2002) and the Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) to lobby Washington D.C. lawmakers to implement regulations on animal housing, care for laboratory animals, and licensing requirements for laboratory staff. Orlans left NIH in 1979 and founded Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), a nonprofit educational organization, where she served as its president. In 1989, Orlans joined the faculty at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. She has authored and coauthored several books related to animal testing and treatment. The two most recent areIn the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation(1993), andThe Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical choice(1998), both published by Oxford University Press.

Box Regan Binder Tom Regan, 2000 October 12 and 2001 September 29

In this two session interview, Regan discusses a range of topics related to animal rights and ethics. The interview covers his childhood, college education, anti-war activism, the influence of Gandhi, and early writings on philosophy and animal rights. He speaks about meeting Peter Singer and comments on Animal Liberation. He discusses his 1983 book The Case for Animal Rights at length, including its writing and reactions from the public. He analyzes the activities of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). He also speaks about philosophy of liberation, veganism, and interpersonal relationships within the animal rights movement. Regan speaks about the March for Animal Rights in 1990 and memories of the day. He also addresses the founding of the Culture and Animals Foundation in 1985 and the state of the animal rights movement at the time of the interview.

Interview conducted by Charles Hardy.

Tom Regan (1938-) was a professor of philosophy who wrote extensively on animal rights and ethics. Regan received his PhD from the University of Virginia in 1966. He taught philosophy at North Carolina State University from 1967 until his retirement in 2001, thereafter becoming professor emeritus.

In 1983, his influential bookThe Case for Animal Rightswas published. Other books that he has published on the subject of animal rights include:All That Dwell Therein: Essays on Animal Rights and Environmental Ethics(1982);Animal Sacrifice: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science(1986);The Struggle for Animal Rights(1987);The Thee Generation: Reflections on the Coming Revolution(1991;Defending Animal Rights(2001);Defending Animal Rights(2003); andThe Animal Rights Debate(2001), with Carl Cohen. He has also written extensively on the philosopher G.E. Moore and was co-founder and has served as president of the Moore Society. He and his wife Nacy Tirk co-founded the Culture and Animals Foundation.

Box Stathos Binder, Box 7 Margaret "Peggy" Moreland Stathos, 2000 July 12

In this one session interview, Margaret Moreland Stathos discusses her involvement with the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS), the institution's history, and her views on activism, particularly surround laboratory animals. She begins the interview discussing her childhood experiences with animals, her learning of vivisection and opposition to it following the disappearance of a neighborhood cat in 1957, graduate work as a pianist in Germany in 1958, and early influences. Figures mentioned over the course of the interview include Albert Schweitzer and Rachel Carson. She discusses the NEAVS presidencies of George Farnum, Judge Robert Ford, and Cleveland Amory, and the activities of NEAVS from the 1960s-1990s. Also addressed is her work in the NEAVS educational department, writing the history of NEAVS, and reflections on the state of animal rights activism at the time of the interview.

There is one box of supplemental materials relating to the inerview, organized by footnote. These materials include NEAVS publications, documentation from the NEAVS Library Project, and Ingrid Newkirk's bookSave the Animals! 101 Easy Things You Can Do.

Interview conducted by Kenneth Shapiro.

Margaret Moreland Stathos became a member of the New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS) in 1957 and served as a director at the time of the interview. In the 1990s, she spearheaded the NEAVS Library Project, which brought animals rights publications to Massachusetts libraries and school libraries across the United States. In 1995, she served as co-chair for NEAVS' centennial and wrote a history of the organization. Professionally, she was a concert pianist and music historian.

Box Thurston Binder Ethel Thurston, 2001 May 10 and 2001 May 11

Ethel Thurston begins this two session interview by describing her childhood experiences, including experiences with dogs. She discusses her education, including interest in ethics, and studying music with Nadia Boulanger in France. She discusses her experiences with Christianity, and examines attitudes of different sects towards animals. She also describes her experiences studying and teaching music in New York from the 1940s onward.

Thurston discusses becoming interested in alternatives to animal testing during the 1950s through Ellen Seiling. She discusses meeting and communicating with the United Kingdom's National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) in the 1960s-1970s, including Colin Smith and Muriel Dowding. She discusses starting the American Fund for Alternatives to Animal Research (AFAAR) at the request of NAVS and the need to for activists to work with scientists. She discusses AFAAR's structure, major projects, activities, and scientists involved with AFAAR, including John Petricciani, Roland Nardone, and Bjorn Ekwall. She also analyzes the activities of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals of Animals (PeTA), American anti-vivisection societies, and her organization Beauty Without Cruelty USA.

Interview conducted by Kenneth Shapiro.

Ethel Thurston (1911-2006) was a professor of music and leader of two animal advocacy societies. She graduated from Vassar College in 1933 and was studying music in France with Nadia Boulanger at the time of the Nazi occupation. She assisted Boulanger in escaping France with historical documents in her luggage. Thurston received her PhD in music from New York University in 1954, and spent the following two decades teaching music at Manhattan College of Music, Hunter College, Saint John's University, Bry Mawr, and other Colleges.

Upon retirement in 1973, Thurston began devoting her energies to two animal protection organizations: Beauty Without Cruelty USA and the American Fund for Alternatives to Animal Research. The first provides consumers information about obtaining personal and household products made and tested without harm to animals. The second provides grants to scientists developing alternatives to animal testing.

Box Singer Binder Peter Singer, 2004 May 14

In this two session interview, Peter Singer discusses a range of topics including his family and childhood in Australia; education and activism while in college; interest in ethics and philosophy; employment, research, and writing; and the animal rights movement. Singer discusses his college activism which included participation in the anti-conscription and antiwar movements, and a burgeoning interest in animal issues. Additionally, he worked on the student newspaper and was a member of the Radical Philosophy Group. He recounts meeting David Keshen, Stanley and Roslind Godlovitch who influenced his decision to become a vegetarian. Singer provides detailed information on why and howAnimal Liberationwas written. He discusses his collaboration and with former student Henry Spira, views on People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), his participation in protest activity, his views on the status of animal advocacy in the United States, and attention given animal rights by the US media. Singer also gives his views on various campaigns aimed at ending animal testing, farming and research issues. Singer also describes assuming the presidency of Animal Rights International (ARI).

Interview conducted by Charles Hardy.

Bioethicist Peter Singer was born in Australia in 1946. He has taught at several universities including the University of Oxford, New York University, the University of Colorado at Boulder, the University of California at Irvine, La Trobe University and most recently at Princeton University. Singer also served as a Fellow at Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Singer has authored numerous books includingAnimal Liberation,Practical Ethics,, andRethinking Life and Death.